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Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon and Evelyne Costes

architecture and cropping potential ( Bernad and Socias i Company, 1998 ). In almond, diverse tree architectures among cultivars are mainly the result of their genetically determined branching patterns rather than pruning practices because trees are usually

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J.E. Preece, C.A. Huetteman, R.G. Adams, W.C. Ashby and P.L. Roth

Whole-tree branch architecture was quantified by counting and measuring the lengths of main stems, basal branches, and all primary (1°), secondary (2°), and tertiary (3°) branches. Trees were grown in replicated clonal plantations established in 1991 on a southern Illinois lowland and an upland site. Fifty-two clones in each of five complete blocks were measured from each plantation. Number of primary branches that formed in 1991, 1992, and 1993, and the number of nodes in the terminal meter of growth were highly significant for silver maple provenance and for clones (four clones for each of 13 provenances), except that clonal differences were nonsignificant for the number of 1° branches on 1991 wood. There were significant effects of provenance and clone on total number and the various sizes of 2° and 3° branches. Generally, a greater number and longer length of 2° and 3° branches formed on trees from the more rapidly growing southern provenances.

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Zhi-Liang Zheng, Jyan-Chyun Jang, James D. Metzger and Zhenbiao Yang

Plant architecture is a major consideration during the commercial production of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev). We have addressed this problem through a biotechnological approach: genetic engineering of chrysanthemum cv. Iridon plants that ectopically expressed a tobacco phytochrome B1 gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. The transgenic plants were shorter, greener in leaves, and had larger branch angles than wild-type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants also phenocopied WT plants grown under light condition depleted of far-red wavelengths. Furthermore, the reduction of growth by the expressed PHY-B1 transgene did not directly involve gibberellins. The commercial application of this biotechnology could provide an economic alternative to the use of chemical growth regulators, and thus reduce the production cost.

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Zana C. Somda and Stanley J. Kays

The effect of the plant density (15, 30, 45 × 96-cm spacing) on the branching pattern `Jewel' sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was determined bi-weekly for 18 weeks. Plant density effects were significant for the number of branches formed and timing of branch formation. Plant density did not affect the type of branches formed (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary), but did alter the timing of induction during the growing season. By the end of the growing period, the ratios for the number of primary to secondary branches were 1.5:1, 1.3:1, and 0.6:1 at the 15-, 30-, and 45-cm spacing, respectively. Few tertiary branches were formed, but were present on some plants at each spacing. Tertiary branches most commonly occurred on plants at the widest spacing. While the number of branches per plant was highly plastic and inversely related to plant density, nodes per branch and internode length were not significantly affected. Average internode length per branch decreased with descending branch hierarchy (i,e., main stem < primary branch < secondary branch). `Jewel' sweet potato responded to increased space available largely through production of additional branches with the modification of branching pattern increasing as the season progressed.

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman and José X. Chaparro

Most temperate fruit tree breeding programs pay major attention to fruit quality, chilling requirement, crop load, and tolerance to disease. In contrast, limited effort has been devoted to tree architecture and tree branching patterns ( Berthelemy

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Gilles Galopin, Sandrine Codarin, Jean-Daniel Viemont and Philippe Morel

blue and safranin. Results Architectural development of inflorescence in Hydrangea macrophylla cv. Hermann Dienemann. Inflorescence has a complex architectural structure. The proximal structure is composed of two pairs of branches and a

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Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie and Bruce L. Topp

and raceme diameter were made from three randomly selected racemes per BU. During the 2016–17 season, nut measurements were also obtained on the BU scale to specifically relate yield to previous detailed architectural measurements. The branch cross

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, José X. Chaparro and Jeffrey Williamson

Although growth forms in peach such as dwarf, pillar, weeping, and compact have been studied ( Scorza et al., 2006 ), little effort has been devoted to the study of tree architecture and branching. The standard peach tree has vigorous acropetal

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Israel S. Joukhadar, Stephanie J. Walker and Paul A. Funk

first node ( Fig. 1E ). The number of basal lateral branches large enough to bear fruit within 10 cm of the soil line was counted. Fig. 1. New mexico pod–type green chile plant architecture measurement locations: (A) plant width, (B) plant height, (C

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Dilma Daniela Silva, Richard C. Beeson Jr. and Michael E. Kane

Shoot branching is an important determinant of a plant’s shape. Shoot branching is the process by which axillary buds develop and form new flowers or branches changing the shoot system architecture. Overall plant form is achieved by regulation of