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of nature experiences on brain region responses and found that subjects who walked around in a natural environment had reduced responses to subgenual prefrontal cortex (sgPFC) neural activity; in contrast, subjects who walked around in an urban

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Psychophysiological responses to geranium visual stimuli were analyzed on female college students with low attentiveness. Alpha and fast-beta brain wave activities, electrodermal activities, and skin temperature were measured continuously during a 5-min baseline, a 10-min induced stressor, and a 5-min treatment. Each of 75 female college students viewed a film of a stressful human situation—an induced stressor, then was exposed to a randomly assigned treatment: red-flowering geraniums, nonflowering geraniums, or no plants. Based on responses to the induced stressor, students were placed into non-, mild-, and high-induced stress groups. Regression models of psychophysiological responses to each treatment were developed for over-all stress levels. Non-induced stress female students exposed to red-flowering geraniums in contrast to nonflowering geraniums and no-plants showed greater fast-beta brain wave activity. Greater fast-beta of non-induced stress female students exposed red-flowering geraniums was associated with increased positive attention and not because of increased stressful tension. This conclusion was supported by more positive emotional states self-reported using the Zuckerman Inventory of Personal Reactions. Conclusive findings from over-all stress levels suggest that benefits of viewing red-flowering geraniums occur to both nonstress and high stress female college students; red-flowering geraniums improve positive attention of female students with no stress (low attentiveness) and enhance stress recovery of female students with high stress (tension).

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cognitive ability ( Park et al., 2020 ). Another study reported that children exhibited increased brain activity and concentration when tasks were performed in spaces where plants were located ( Kim et al., 2020 ). Previous studies have reported that the

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participated in 18 horticultural activity programs had improved cognitive function in comparison with the control group. Another study reported that the levels of the brain’s nerve growth factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and platelet

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improving physical, mental, and social health ( Son et al., 2006 ). When older adults performed horticultural activities, levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increased, which improved cognitive function ( Park et al., 2020 ). Moreover, horticultural

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gardening activities ( Lee et al. 2016 , 2018 ). Regarding psychoemotional aspects, brain waves were measured by electroencephalography during gardening activities, and it was found that attentional concentration improved ( Kim et al. 2020 , 2021 ). When

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that is naturally diffused by the plant, which is generally how we experience scent in everyday life or in horticultural activities. Kweon et al. (2003) compared the brain responses between people who were tearing peppermint leaves compared with

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Plant growth regulators that are made available to University researchers usually come with an indication of biological activity, based upon in-house work by chemical companies. Often a practical use of the PGR is suggested. The PRG is applied at a range of concentrations at a timing that is appropriate to get the desired response. Undesirable side effects are noted. Follow up experiments are designed, usually altering concentration, time of application, or formulation, to maximize a response or to overcome and alleviate undesirable side effects. If the PGR is labeled, refinements for its use and grower recommendations are prepared. Critical in the development process is communication and interaction among researchers and industry personnel. This is exemplified by the exchange of ideas, sharing of data, and brain-storming that has occurred over the past 25 years at the Northeast Plant Growth Regulator Working Group meetings. Budget reductions and down sizing of programs at the University have forced researchers to depend more upon grant-in-aid support from companies. Several case studies will be presented to show the commercial development of some PGRs, including: Accel, cultar, Apogee, and ReTain. The evolving role of researches in the development of PGRs will be discussed.

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) reported that green plants in an interior space increased alpha waves in electroencephalographic activity, which was used as an index of emotional stabilization. Measurements of brain function are routinely performed using electroencephalography, positron

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times that in the general population ( Zhang et al., 2017a ). Previous studies have reported that excessive mobile phone usage could affect the brain and its normal activities ( Imamura et al., 2009 ) and could increase the risk of internet addiction

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