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Dafna Langgut

, misinterpreted, or both, especially in the case of the botanical remains from archaeological excavations or geological sediments. The current study reevaluates some of the contradictory evidence in order to arrive at a clear and accurate picture. This review

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Dawn Stover, David Creech and F. Stephen

Amorphophallus titanum, corpse flower or titan arum, was discovered in 1878 in Sumatra, Indonesia by the Italian botanist Odoardo Beccari. The plant first bloomed in cultivation at Kew in 1889 and the first flowering event in the U.S. was a sensation in 1937 at the New York Botanical Garden. With fewer than thirty recorded flowering events in the U.S., the foul-smelling flower always excites the public and attracts great media attention. On 12 July 2004, a specimen at the SFA Mast Arboretum flowered successfully and Jack became the first-ever corpse flower to bloom in Texas. The SFA Mast Arboretum accessioned Jack as a small corm in June 2000. The plant has spent winters in a climate-controlled greenhouse and summers in a humid shade house and has annually produced a strong leaf stalk and umbrella like leaf blade before collapsing in December or January. In March 2004, the corm weighed 26 lb before placement in a larger pot. The inflorescence emerged in early June 2004, reached 61 inches 11 July, opened 12 July, and collapsed after 77 hours. Fresh pollen from a University of Connecticut plant was flown in but a pollination effort eight hours after opening failed. Jack's corm weighed 21 lb when moved into the greenhouse in November 2004, and remains dormant. Detailed information and a complete pictorial history are available at http://arboretum.sfasu.edu/events/amt/index.htm.

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Jules Janick

The prehistoric discovery that certain plants cause harm and others have curative powers is the origin of the healing professions and its practitioners (priest, physician, and apothecary), as well as professions devoted to plants (botany and horticulture). The description of plants and their properties and virtues (termed herbals in the 16th century) became an invaluable resource for the physician and apothecary. The earliest medicobotanical treatises date to antiquity. A Sumerian tablet from about 2100 bce (before current era) contains a dozen prescriptions and proscribes plant sources. In China, the Pen T'Sao Ching, assumed to be authored by the legendary Emperor Shen Nung in 2700 bce, but probably written in the first century, contains about 100 herbal remedies. The Ebers Papyrus, a medical treatise from ancient Egypt dates to 1550 bce but contains material from 5-20 centuries earlier. In Greece, the great botanical treatise Enquiry into Plants of Theophrastus, devotes book IX to the medicinal value of herbs. The herbal De Materia Medica by Pedanios Dioscorides of Anazarba, a Roman army physician, written in the year 65, the most famous ever written, was slavishly referred to, copied, and commented on for 1500 years. The great epoch of printed herbals appeared in the 16th century of which the most notable are Das Buch zu Distillieren (1500) by Hieronymus Brunschwig; Herbarum Vivae Eicones (1530, 1532, 1536) by Otto Brunfel; Kreüter Buch (1542) by Hieronymus Bock; De Historias Stirpium (1542) of Leonhart Fuchs; New Herball (1551, 1562, 1568) by William Turner; Commentarii “on Dioscorides” (1544) by Pier Andrea Mattioli; Crôÿdeboeck (1554) by Rembert Dodoens; and the Herball (1597) by John Gerard. Botany and medicine were essentially in step until the 17th century when both arts turned scientific and, at this juncture, botanical works would essentially ignore medicinal uses while medical works were devoid of plant lore. Yet, the medicinal use of herbs continues as an alternate form of medicine and remains popular in various forms to the present day despite the questionable efficacy of many popular herbs and the reliance of many herbal recommendations on superstition and astrology. The fact that most drugs were originally plant-based has encouraged a new look at the medicinal properties of plants.

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Sandra B. Wilson and Luke Flory

online still remains a challenge ( Aragon, 2003 ; Beaudoin, 1990 ). Although learning outcomes can be equivalent among traditional in-class versus hybrid distance education courses, greater student satisfaction is still often correlated with live

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Le Luo, Chao Yu, Xuelian Guo, Huitang Pan and Qixiang Zhang

., 2014 ). Although R. laxa botanical varieties could be identified with these stable morphological variants, it remains difficult to distinguish them morphologically because of both intra- and interpopulation variation in these morphological

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Judy Kay, Arantza A. Strader, Vickie Murphy, Lan Nghiem-Phu, Michael Calonje and M. Patrick Griffith

is preferred as the temperature remains more constant, although properly prepared pollen in airtight jars will keep well in self-defrosting freezers ( Hanna, 1994 ). Pollen is routinely donated to other botanical gardens (FTBG and Gemini Garden

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Daike Tian and Ken Tilt

Lotus, often confused with botanical Lotus Linn. in the legume family, is the common name of Nelumbo Adans. (Nelumbonaceae), which has only two species, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. native to Asia and N. lutea Willd. native to America and the

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Jules Janick

Mesopotamia. The ancient development of fruit culture in Mesopotamia derives from archeological remains of fruit, from pictorial images, and literary evidence. The Sumerian discovery of writing in the third millennium bce provides a literary tradition that

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Jules Janick and Kim Hummer

(rhizotomoi), which led to the ancient Greek tradition of herbal medicine. Drug merchants (pharacopuloi), derived from the Greek word for remedy or drug, gave rise to the word pharmacy. The great botanical treatise Enquiry into Plants of Theophrastus, written

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Cary Pirone, Jodie V. Johnson, J. Martin E. Quirke, Horacio A. Priestap and David Lee

of S. reginae photographed at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden. Inflorescence is ≈22 cm long. ( B ) Mature and open capsule of S. reginae with arillate seeds exposed, capsules ≈5.5 cm across. Photographed in Del Mar, CA, by Tom DeFanti. ( C