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Three bone products (meat and bone meal, steamed bone meal, and bone chips) were compared to a water-soluble P source (monocalcium phosphate) for P availability and enhancement of tomato shoot growth. All bone products were finely ground to pass through a 40-mesh sieve. The products were added to a phosphorus-deficient greenhouse growing medium based on their P concentration with P at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg−1. Meat and bone meal produced the least shoot growth in 1992, but all products were similar in 1993. Growth peaked with P at 111 mg·kg−1 in 1992, but in 1993, P at 50 mg·kg−1 was sufficient. Shoot P uptake was in direct proportion to P availability in the soil mix, monocalcium phosphate having the highest shoot P content. Although bone products affected N, Ca, Zn, and Mn content in shoots, the magnitudes of differences were minor and inconsistent from 1992 to 1993. Major consideration for using a bone product are its relative cost of P, fineness of grind, and CaCO3 equivalent.

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Three bone products (meat and bone meal, steamed bone meal, and bone chips) were compared to a water-soluble P source (monocalcium phosphate) for P availability and enhancement of tomato shoot growth. All bone products were finely ground to pass through a 40-mesh sieve. The products were added to a phosphorus-deficient greenhouse growing medium based on their P concentration with P at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg−1. Meat and bone meal produced the least shoot growth in 1992, but all products were similar in 1993. Growth peaked with P at 111 mg·kg−1 in 1992, but in 1993, P at 50 mg·kg−1 was sufficient. Shoot P uptake was in direct proportion to P availability in the soil mix, monocalcium phosphate having the highest shoot P content. Although bone products affected N, Ca, Zn, and Mn content in shoots, the magnitudes of differences were minor and inconsistent from 1992 to 1993. Major consideration for using a bone product are its relative cost of P, fineness of grind, and CaCO3 equivalent.

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In 1993, the Arkansas poultry industry produced 1.048 billion broilers with a total live weight of 2.54 million metric tons. Depending on the type of processing used, from 30% to 50% of live weight can end up in the waste stream. Three primary waste-stream products are generated by the poultry industry: feather meal, poultry meal, and bone meal. Feather meal contains ≈14% N, poultry meal 11% N, and bone meal 8% N. Byproduct additions were made to tomato, marigold, and impatiens transplants at the rate of 6, 12, 24 and 48 g/10-cm pot. The two highest rates killed plants outright, while the lower rates resulted in some growth reduction when compared to the control. Studies are under way to further evaluate the use of these byproducts in an organic production system for tomatoes and bedding plants.

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Commercial cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) soils are high in iron and calcium and have low pH. This soil chemistry causes conditions where phosphorus is tightly bound and is, to a large extent, unavailable to the cranberry plants. In theory, P forms that directly enter the plant (foliar), or that do not quickly dissolve to become rapidly immobilized (organic, slow-release, other insoluble forms) could be more efficient for cranberry production. To test this hypothesis, two separate sets of field plots, one comparing 19 kg P/ha from sole P sources (all received 22 kg·ha–1 each N and K2O as ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate) and the other comparing “complete” N–P–K fertilizers containing P, were established at six locations on three cranberry cultivars. Experiment #1 showed that, over all locations, there were no differences in mean yield for plots fertilized with triple super phosphate (current practice), foliar, or rock phosphate. However, fruit rot levels differed by treatment. In Experiment #2, organic forms (except bone meal) gave the lowest yields, while rock phosphate plots had the greatest yields. These field studies indicated that, while some organic P sources may not be suitable for cranberry production, low-leaching P forms such as bone meal and rock phosphate were as effective for cranberry production as the more-soluble triple super phosphate.

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`Caruso' tomatoes were grown in a glass greenhouse in Winter and early Spring 1991. All plants were grown in 16-liter nursery pots. Half the plants were grown in a conventional peat-lite medium (Profi-mix) and were fertilized with synthetic water-soluble fertilizer containing micronutrients and (in ppm) 187 N, 46 P, 278 K, 177 Ca, and 48 Mg. The other plants were grown in a potting medium composed of 1 mature compost (chicken manure and leaves): 1 loam: 2 vermiculite (by volume); this medium was amended with 1.5 kg bone meal (2N–10P–0K) and 3 kg dolomitic lime/m3. The “organic” treatment was fertilized with a fish emulsion solution containing (in ppm) 150 N, 13 P, and 25 K. The experiment was repeated in 1992 with `Capello'. In both years, fruit were harvested around the half-ripe to three-quarters ripe stage. All insect control was with insecticidal soap and bio-control agents. A blind taste test was conducted on campus in both years. In 1991, of 70 participants, 73% preferred the “conventional” tomatoes, 20% preferred the organic tomatoes, and 7% expressed no preference. In 1992, of 105 participants, 67% preferred the “conventional” tomatoes, 24% preferred the organic tomatoes, and 10% expressed no preference.

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As many farmers transition toward organic farming, research-based information is required to determine the appropriate rates and timing for the application of available organic fertilizers. Four experiments were conducted over a 3-year period in Oahu, Hawaii, to evaluate the effect of five different organic amendments on the growth and yield of edible ginger. Fertilizer amendments, applied at a rate of 30–60 t·ha-1, included bone meal, a locally available commercial chicken manure-based compost, a commercial Bokashi compost, aged chicken manure, synthetic fertilizer (farmer's practice at 300 kg·ha-1 N), and a control. Each treatment plot consisted of a 10-m row with 15 plants per plot, and five replications per treatment. Ginger was planted in April of every year, and harvested from February to March of the following year. Data collected included soil fertility before initiation and after experiment completion, tissue nutrient levels, plant stands, plant height, and stem number, individual tops and root weight of 5–10 plants per treatment, as well as nematode counts before and after experiment completion. The data showed that similar or greater root weight yields and quality were obtained with the use of organic amendments compared to the use of synthetic fertilizer. Increased yields were obtained when organic amendment and fertilizer applications were split over the growing season. Data will be presented with regard to initial plant stands, tissue levels, and yield trends in response to the several amendments used in these experiments, and management considerations for farmers will be discussed.

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A major issue in the preparation of nutrient budgets for organic farmers is the residual nutrient effect from organic amendments available for follow-up crops in year-round rotation systems. A series of separate experiments were conducted to evaluate: 1) the residual nutrient effects on double-cropped sweet corn from initial applications of several organic amendments locally available in Oahu, Hawaii; 2) the residual effect of double cropped zucchini; and 3) mustard cabbage from the application of similar organic amendments. The sweet corn experiment consisted of six treatments, with organic amendments applied only prior to the first planting. The second follow-up sweet corn planting was grown without additional amendment applications. Treatments included: 1) a fruit fly based compost; 2) aged chicken manure; 3) bone meal; 4) synthetic fertilizer (farmer's practice); 5) a combination of compost and fertilizer; and 6) a combination of compost and chicken manure. The experiment was arranged with a randomized complete-block design. Each treatment plot consisted of two 20-m long rows of corn with five replications per plot for a total of 30 treatment plots. On a separate location similar trials were conducted on long-term organic farming plots, with double cropped zucchini and with double cropped mustard cabbage. The results from this research shows that crop yields were similar or greater under the organic amendment plots compared to the synthetic fertilizer plots. In crops with a high N uptake demand, yields from the organic amendment plots declined by about 10% in follow-up plantings. This data will allow organic farmers to prepare nutrient budgets to better match their organic fertilizer applications with crop nutrient demands.

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exclusively fish scraps from canning operations), and contains low bone content. Often called meat and bone meal, tankage is a valuable agricultural input ( Blatt, 1991 ; Mondini et al., 2008 ) used as fertilizer in Hawai’i for at least 20 years ( Valenzuela

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, C. Cayuela, M.L. Sinicco, T. Sanchez-Monedero, M.A. Bertolone, E. Bardi, L. 2008 Soil application of meat and bone meal. Short-term effects on mineralization dynamics and soil biochemical and microbiological properties Soil Biol. Biochem. 40 462 474

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( Allium porrum ), AMF increased P uptake from bone meal by 62% but did not enhance P uptake from Kola apatite, a form of igneous rock phosphate ( Kahiluoto and Vestberg, 1998 ). Inoculation with AMF in a field trial increased growth and P uptake by leeks

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