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Flower color results from the interaction of a pigment (anthocyanin) with a co-pigment (usually a flavonone or flavonol) at a specific pH. At more alkaline pHs (pH 5 to 6), an anthocyanin/co-pigment complex is blue; while at more acidic pHs (pH 3-4), the same anthocyanin/copigment complex is red. In Phalaenopsis pulcherrima, a mutation in pH resulted in a bluer flower color. The difference in pH between the normal-colored magenta flowers (pH 5.8) and mutant violet flowers (pH 5.5) was due to a single co-dominantly inherited gene.

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, and only a few native blue species have been applied to blue Phalaenopsis hybridization ( Tsao et al., 2020 ). Blue flowers of most plants are the result of delphinidin accumulation or expression ( Qingyu and Silan, 2004 ), and in only a few cases

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and 11 months but, in Aranda Lucy Laycock, it can be 13 years and 3 months ( Hew and Yong, 2004 ). In commercial production, Phalaenopsis plants are supplied with optimal nutrients and favorable growth conditions, which lead to a quick increase in

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et al., 2011 ; Liu et al., 2016 ). The NIR spectra of the 302 Phalaenopsis samples (126 leaves, 88 shoots, and 88 roots) were obtained using MSC treatment. As shown in Fig. 1A and B , absorption peaks were found in both the visible regions of blue

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applied to produce new cultivars of orchids ( Lin et al., 2001 ), as has been the case with colchicine-doubled amphidiploid cultivars in Dendrobium Swartz ( Kamemoto et al., 1999 ). In Phalaenopsis Blume, interspecific and intergeneric hybridization

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number of Phalaenopsis cultivars and hybrids showed a fairly consistent pattern of enhanced foliage biomass production (fresh and dry weights) under blue netting despite reduced transmission of PAR compared with black and red nets ( Leite et al., 2008

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and Chandler, 2008 ). Oren-Shamir et al. (2001) reported branch elongation of variegated Pittosporum under the red nets and dwarfing under blue nets. Studies in Brazil showed that Phalaenopsis cultivars generally grew larger leaves under blue

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bark-based soilless media in laboratories and in nurseries. However, medium testing is rarely performed by Phalaenopsis growers in Japan and Taiwan possibly as a result of the unique chemical and physical characteristics of the substrate—sphagnum moss

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‘Deep Orange’ under blue shade net ( Table 3 ). Leite et al. (2008 ) also found that blue shade net increased leaf area of moon orchid ( Phalaenopsis amabilis ). No significant differences occurred between black or blue shade nets within a cultivar

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red between 550 and 650 nm, and only around 5% in the blue region between 400 and 500 nm ( Sager and McFarlane, 1997 ). Because of the low levels of blue light fraction and other photosynthetic sensitive wavelengths, they are not the most efficient

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