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Mark J. Bassett

Abbreviations: CML, chlorotic moderately lanceolate; GLB, glossy bronzing; LBD, leaf-bleaching dwarf; OL, overlapping leaflets. 1 Professor of Horticulture. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Journal Series no. R-01106. This research was supported in part by the

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Ritu Dhir, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

× height. Extent of leaf bleaching was determined as a visual rating on a scale of 1 to 7, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 1% to 17%, 3 = 18% to 34%, 4 = 35% to 50%, 5 = 51% to 67%, 6 = 68% to 84%, and 7 = 85% to 100% bleached. Total leaf area was determined using a leaf

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Ritu Dhir, Richard L. Harkess, and Guihong Bi

treatments (WAT) started as a visual rating on a scale of 1 to 7, in which 1 = 0%, 2 = 1% to 17%, 3 = 18% to 34%, 4 = 35% to 50%, 5 = 51% to 67%, 6 = 68% to 84%, and 7 = 85% to 100% bleaching. For pigment analysis, one 38.5-mm 2 leaf disk was collected from

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James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, Matthew T. Elmore, Gregory K. Breeden, and Gregory R. Armel

bleaching was visually rated for each whole plant on a 0% to 100% scale, in which 0 equaled completely green leaf tissue and 100 equaled completely white leaf tissue. Tissue bleaching was assessed visually because Yelverton et al. (2009) reported that

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Lina M. Rodríguez-Salamanca and Mary K. Hausbeck

appearance from other commonly occurring onion foliar diseases ( Schwartz and Mohan, 1995 ). The onion leaf and neck anthracnose lesions range about from 0.2 to 0.6 cm in width × 0.4 to 3 cm in length and have a characteristic bleached appearance that

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Jane Kahia, Peter Kanze Sallah, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouame, Margaret Kirika, Simeon Niyitegeka, and Theodore Asiimwe

in 70% ethanol for 30 s, followed by 3% commercial bleach called JIK which contains 3.85% NaOCl [Reckitt and Benckiser (Kenya) Ltd] for 20 min and a final rinse with sterile distilled water four times. The seeds were germinated on a Murashige and

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Nirmal Joshee, Bipul K. Biswas, and Anand K. Yadav

endangered germplasm ( Rao, 2004 ). In vitro culture studies on Centella have reported high incidences of microbial contamination, which drastically reduced explant survival ( Tiwari et al., 2000 ). Micropropagation of C. asiatica through leaf and nodal

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Monica Ozores-Hampton

prolonged adverse conditions, leaf chlorophyll content declines significantly with whitening of the leaf blade known as “bleached leaf” ( Broschat and Elliott, 2005 ; Koenig and Kuhns, 2010 ; Walworth, 2013 ). Iron chlorosis during early growth stages

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Erik C. Fargo and Jeffrey A. Adkins

Development of a reliable method for Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. organogenesis is critical for developing an in-vitro mutagenesis protocol. Container-grown (11.8 L) H. macrophylla `Nikko Blue' plants were maintained in a controlled environment greenhouse, with supplemental lighting (1600 hr to 2400 hr mercury vapor lamp), fertilized with 65 g Nutricote total (18N–2.6P–6.6K, Agrivert, Inc., New York, N.Y.) and hand-watered. To reduce fungal contamination, stock plants were sprayed to run-off biweekly with Alliette WDG (375 mg·L-1, aluminum tris), Bayleton (250 mg·L-1, triadimefon), and Heritage (25 mg·L-1, azoxystrobin). Leaf explants were sterilized with 0%, 10%, 15%, or 20% bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) (by volume) for 10 or 15 min, and stem explants were sterilized with 0%, 10%, 25%, or 50% bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) for 10 or 15 min. About 97% of fungal contaminates were eliminated from leaf and stem explants when treated with 10% bleach for either 10 or 15 min. Leaves were plated on Gamborg B5 media at pH 5.7 containing 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 μM 2,4-D and 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 μM BAP and placed in a controlled environment growth room under a 14-h photoperiod or in a dark growth chamber. Callogenesis followed by root organogenesis was observed on explants treated with a variety of concentrations and combinations of 2,4-D and BAP. Strongest callogenesis was observed on media supplemented with 10 μM 2,4-D. A greater callus concentration was observed along the edges of dark cultured leaf discs. Indirect root induction was greatest on 10 μM 2,4-D.

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B.K. Harbaugh and S.S. Woltz

Foliar chlorosis or bleaching, interveinal chlorosis, leaf edge and tip necrosis, a poor root system, and stunted growth of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf) Shinn seedlings were associated with a medium pH of 5.0 or 5.5 but not when the values ranged from 6.4 to 7.5. The range in medium pH resulting in the best growth of seedings and flowering plants was 6.3 to 6.7. Responses to medium pH were similar, regardless of fertilizer solution pH or cultivar. Eustoma seedling and shoot fresh weights for pH 5.0 and 5.5 were only 23% to 66% of corresponding values for plants grown at pH 6.4. Leaf tissue Zn was extremely high (1050 mg·kg-l dry leaf tissue) at a medium pH of 5.0, but other macro- and micronutrients in leaves were not at abnormal levels.