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Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas and Fikrettin Sahin

Blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus ) and raspberry ( R. idaeus ), belonging to genus Rubus, family Rosaceae, are widespread perennial shrubs. They are known to contain naturally occurring polyphenol antioxidants that can regulate certain beneficial

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Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, Chad E. Finn, and M. Pilar Bañados

Blackberries have long been a favorite wild fruit, as many species are native to several countries worldwide and are picked for personal or commercial use. Natural hybrids of wild species provided several of the first named cultivars including, for

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John R. Clark

and produce fruit in the next growing season. In red raspberry ( Rubus ideaus L.), primocane- and floricane-fruiting cultivars have substantial commercial value. In blackberry ( Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson), floricane-fruiting has been the basis of

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Brent Black, James Frisby, Kimberly Lewers, Fumiomi Takeda, and Chad Finn

Some caneberry ( Rubus L.) production regions experience dramatic seasonal variation in bloom date and fruit ripening time. Phenology and biology of flowering in both cultivated and wild raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) and blackberries have been

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Nina R.F. Castillo, Barbara M. Reed, Julie Graham, Felicidad Fernández-Fernández, and Nahla Victor Bassil

Most of the cultivated fruit species in Rubus belong to two subgenera: Idaeobatus (raspberry) and Rubus (formerly Eubatus ) (blackberry). Idaeobatus contains european red raspberry ( R . idaeus ), north american red raspberry ( R

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Abigail R. Debner, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti, and Fumiomi Takeda

Floricane-fruiting blackberry do not produce fruit in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States unless the primocanes are protected by some method such as laying canes parallel to the ground using a rotating cross-arm system and

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Fumiomi Takeda and Jorge Soria

A variety of techniques and vegetative materials are used to asexually propagate blackberry. Blackberry plants can be easily reproduced from root suckers, crown division, root cuttings, tip layering, soft stem cuttings, and tissue culture (TC

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Fumiomi Takeda, Thomas Tworkoski, Chad E. Finn, and Charles C. Boyd

Blackberry traditionally has been propagated using vegetative methods including tip layering, cane cuttings (soft and hard), root cuttings, and tissue culture (TC) ( Caldwell, 1984 ). Large commercial blackberry nurseries use TC techniques that are

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Alejandra A. Salgado and John R. Clark

Production of fresh market blackberries in the United States has expanded greatly compared with most of the world, especially in California along with new commercial production in Georgia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Texas ( Clark and Finn, 2014

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James N. Moore and John R. Clark

`Kiowa' is the eighth in a series of erect-growing, high-quality, productive blackberry cultivars developed in the breeding program of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Large fruit size is the most outstanding characteristic of `Kiowa', with fruit size usually 30% heavier than `Shawnee'. `Kiowa' has generally been less productive than `Shawnee' but similar in productivity to `Choctaw'. First picking of `Kiowa' is usually 3 days later than that of `Shawnee'. The harvest season for `Kiowa' is long, with fruit commonly ripening over a 6-week period. Fruits of `Kiowa' are firmer than `Shawnee' and `Choctaw'. Plants of `Kiowa' are not as vigorous or erect as are plants of `Shawnee', although row establishment has been good using either plants or root cuttings.