Growth, flowering, and survival of black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.) from three seed sources—northern Florida (NFL), central Florida (CFL), and Texas (TEX)—were evaluated under low input conditions for one growing season at four sites in Florida. Two sites were in American Horticultural Society (AHS) Heat Zone 9 while the other two were in AHS Heat Zones 10 and 11. Growth, onset date of flowering, and number of flowers at peak flowering varied by site. With few exceptions, plants tended to reach peak flowering at about the same time. Flower diameter varied by seed source with TEX>NFL>CFL. While TEX plants were perceived as the showiest, NFL and CFL plants persisted longer under the low input conditions in Florida, and hence provided some evidence of adaptation to regional site conditions.
Jeffrey G. Norcini, James H. Aldrich, Mack Thetford, Kimberly A. Klock-Moore, Michelle L. Bell, and Brent K. Harbaugh
Clydette M. Alsup and Pamela B. Trewatha
In two experiments, seedlings of black-eyed susan were transplanted into 15-cm pots and after 1 week received one of the following treatments: media drench application of 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 mg·L-1 of paclobutrazol or pinching back of terminal growth once, twice, or three times. After plants reached salable size, plant height, lateral branch length and number, and flower counts were taken, and plants were harvested for dry weights. In the first experiment, all pinching treatments and 10 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol reduced plant height and increased lateral branching. Flower count at harvest was enhanced by paclobutrazol and reduced by pinching, due to delayed development of inflorescences. Lateral branching and flower bud count were greatest in the second study on plants receiving three pinches. The 100 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol-drenched plants had lowest height, dry weight, and bud count and were severely stunted. The most attractive plants appeared to be those that received the 10 mg·L-1 paclobutrazol drench treatments.
Gina M. Angelella and Megan E. O’Rourke
( Chamaecrista fasciculata ), and showy tickseed ( Bidens aristosa ); the biennual was black-eyed Susan ( Rudbeckia hirta ); perennials included narrowleaf mountain mint ( Pycnanthemum tenuifolium ), lanceleaf coreopsis ( Coreopsis lanceolata ), wild bergamot
Heather Kalaman, Gary W. Knox, Sandra B. Wilson, and Wendy Wilber
advertised pollinator plant, spotted beebalm ( Monarda punctata ), 587 of 838 respondents (70.1%) were able to correctly identify an image of this floral resource. Similarly, when shown a photo of a black-eyed susan ( Rudbeckia hirta ), 744 of 841 respondents
Anthony M. Ortiz, Brent S. Sipes, Susan C. Miyasaka, and Alton S. Arakaki
. bicolor nothosubsp. drummondii cvs. Bale All, Bale All III, Baler, Graze-All, Piper, Sordan 79, and Tastemaker. The other species group included black hollyhock, elecampane, black-eyed Susan, and sunn hemp. Seeds were germinated in vermiculite and
Jeffrey G. Norcini, Mack Thetford, Kimberly A. Moore, Michelle L. Bell, Brent K. Harbaugh, and James H. Aldrich
Evidence is presented that native populations of Rudbeckia hirta L. (Blackeyed Susan) may be adapted to regional conditions. Two Florida ecotypes, one from north Florida (NFL) and one from central Florida (CFL), were better able to withstand the low fertility sites under three AHS Heat Zones (9, 10, 11) in Florida than were plants grown from Texas (TEX) seeds. Plants from TEX seed were the largest and showiest (generally the greatest number of flowers; largest flowers) but the shortest-lived. Most of these plants did not survive beyond August (about 6 months after transplanting) regardless of site. The CFL plants were especially tolerant of flooding conditions at Ft. Lauderdale. Under garden conditions, CFL Black-eyed Susan may be a highly desirable wildflower for subtropical or tropical summers.
James J. Marois and Jeffrey G. Norcini
Survival of black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta) from three regional seed sources was evaluated after inoculation with the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the greenhouse, and after they were planted in fumigated or nonfumigated and irrigated or nonirrigated field plots. The three seed sources were northern Florida (NFL), central Florida (CFL), or Texas (TEX). Plants from the three seed sources were inoculated individually under greenhouse conditions with four isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from the roots of diseased black-eyed susan grown in ecotype trials near Monticello, Fla. About 20% of the inoculated plants developed symptoms similar to those observed in the field, but no consistent ecotype or isolate effects were observed. In the field trial, planting beds were fumigated with methyl-bromide and chloropicrin and irrigated with drip irrigation (high input), not fumigated and irrigated, fumigated and not irrigated, or not fumigated and not irrigated (low input). During the first month of the trial, treatment and seed source had a significant effect on survival due to the low initial survival of NFL in the nonfumigated-nonirrigated plots. After the first month, only seed source had asignificant effect on survival, with TEX decreasing rapidly and the NFL population decreasing to a lesser degree. The decline of TEX could not be directly attributed to pests or climatic effects.
Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno
Each year a wide variety of new cultivars and species are evaluated in the National Cut Flower Trial Programs administered by North Carolina State University and the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers. Stems of promising and productive cultivars from the National Trial Program were pretreated with either a commercial hydrating solution or deionized (DI) water and placed in either a commercial holding solution or DI water. Over 8 years, the vase life of 121 cultivars representing 47 cut flower genera was determined. Although there was cultivar variation within each genus, patterns of postharvest responses have emerged. The largest category, with 53 cultivars, was one in which a holding preservative increased vase life of the following genera and species: acidanthera (Gladiolus murielae), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bee balm (Monarda hybrid), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hybrids), campanula (Campanula species), celosia (Celosia argentea), common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), coral bells (Heuchera hybrids), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), ladybells (Adenophora hybrid), lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana), ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), pincushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpurea), pinkflower (Indigofera amblyantha), seven-sons flower (Heptacodium miconioides), shasta daisy (Leucanthemum superbum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), trachelium (Trachelium caeruleum), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans). Hydrating preservatives increased the vase life of four basils, coral bells, and sunflower cultivars. The combined use of hydrator and holding preservatives increased the vase life of three black-eyed susan, seven-sons flower, and sunflower cultivars. Holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 14 cultivars of the following genera and species: ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), false queen anne's lace (Ammi species), knotweed (Persicaria hybrid), lisianthus, pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and zinnia. Hydrating preservatives reduced the vase life of 18 cultivars of the following genera and species: feverfew, lisianthus, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, seven-sons flower, shasta daisy, sneezeweed, sweet william, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. The combined use of hydrating and holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 12 cultivars in the following genera and species: false queen anne's lace, feverfew, pincushion flower, sneezeweed, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. Data for the remaining 50 cultivars were not significant among the treatments; these genera and species included beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), black-eyed susan, blue mist (Caryopteris clandonensis), calendula (Calendula officinalis), campanula, cleome (Cleome hasserliana), common ninebark, dahlia (Dahlia hybrids), delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), flowering peach (Prunus persica forma versicolor), heliopsis (Heliopsis helianthoides), hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum), himalayan honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa), hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata), larkspur (Consolida hybrids), lily of the nile (Agapanthus hybrid), lisianthus, lobelia, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, scented geranium (Pelargonium hybrid), sunflower, sweet william, and zinnia.
Amy M. Fay, Mark A. Bennett, and Steven M. Still
Low-vigor seeds of black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida Ait.) primed in aerated -1.3 MPa KNO3 for 7 days at 30C in darkness had double the total germination percentage at 30C and one-half the mean time of germination as nonprimed seeds. Priming the seeds in polyethylene glycol rather than KNO3 generally resulted in lower total germination percentage and longer mean time of germination. Osmotic priming increased total germination percentage and germination rate of seeds germinated at 21.9 to 32.2C, but the priming benefit on total germination percentage was greater at ≤27.6C. Total germination percentage of primed and nonprimed seeds was highest at 28.8 to 32.2C.
Amy M. Fay, Steven M. Still, and Mark A. Bennett
Germination trials of three seedlots were conducted over a temperature gradient for 14 days to determine the optimal germination temperature for the Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida Ait.). The optimal germination temperature for R. fulgida seeds was 30 ± 1C. All three seedlots began germination (radicle emergence) on the second day at 30.2C. By day four, all seedlots sur-passed 50% germination, with three seedlots germinating 53%, 52%, and 73%. Mean germination percentages were higher between 28.3 and 32.6C than at temperatures above or below this range. Significantly higher germination percentages and enhanced germination rates attained at the elevated temperatures may save time, cut production costs, and decrease exposure to detrimental pre-emergent pathogenic fungi.