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susceptible to this disease. CBS causes a wide range of symptoms, but the most distinguishing one is called hard spot ( Fig. 1 ), which is a circular lesion (with 3–10 mm diameter) with gray necrotic fatal tissue at the center embraced by a black margin. Hard

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Black spot of roses, caused by the fungus Marssonina rosae (teleomorph = Diplocarpon rosae ), is the most important and damaging disease of roses in landscapes worldwide. The pathogen causes round to irregular coal black spots with fringed

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cultivars resistant to the common rose diseases ( Byrne, 2015 ; Debener and Byrne, 2014 ). Black spot, the most important disease affecting garden roses globally, is caused by the fungus D. rosae Wolf ( Marssonina rosae anamorph) ( Nauta and Spooner

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Citrus black spot (CBS), incited by the fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa ( Kiely, 1948 ; McAlpine, 1899 ), is an important disease of citrus in most humid tropical and subtropical growing areas worldwide, including parts of continental Australia

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, powdery mildew, brown spot, and fire blight is an important breeding objective ( Bell et al., 1996 ). In Asian pears on the other hand, resistance against fungal diseases such as scab, rust, and black spot is receiving attention with resistance to black

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agent of black spot), Podosphaera pannosa (Wallr.: Fr.) de Bary (causal agent of powdery mildew), and Cercospora puderi B.H. Davis (one of the causal agents of rose leaf spot) ( Horst and Cloyd, 2007 ). Of these, black spot is the most serious in the

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Production of watermelons for seed consumption is popular in many regions of the world. In the Mediterranean area, large white seeds are preferred. Six breeding lines were selected for investigating the nature of black spot, an undesirable feature reducing the commercial value of the seeds. Black spot is expressed as blackened areas of the seed coat, mostly near the margin in mild cases, but extending over much of the seed coat in severe cases. Sowing date had a significant effect on expression of black spot. Seeds that developed in early summer (June) had low frequency and severity of black spot expression, whereas seeds that developed later in the summer (July–August) had markedly increased expression. Large differences were also observed among the breeding lines. There was a significant negative correlation between severity of black spot and seed weight, suggesting that black spot is a stress-related phenomenon.

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Rose black spot disease is caused by the hemi-biotrophic fungus Diplocarpon rosae , and this pathogen solely infects roses ( Debener, 2019 ). Rose black spot is considered the most problematic and widespread disease of outdoor-grown roses in humid

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The fungus Diplocarpon rosae (anamorph = Marssonina rosae Lind.) is the causal organism of rose black spot, which is the most damaging disease of rose worldwide ( Dobbs, 1984 ). Symptoms include lesions on leaves and stems as well as frequent

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Citrus black spot is a fungal disease caused by G . citricarpa Kiely [anamorph Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) van der Aa]. This disease was first described in Australia in the 1890s and has since been found in the humid subtropical regions

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