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D. E. Vanstone and L. J. LaCroix

Abstract

The seed of black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marsh., borne in a single samara, normally ripens in the autumn. At that time the seed contains an embryo which is both immature and dormant. In order to overcome this dual delay to germination, the seed can be matured in moist peat moss for 18 weeks at 21° followed by after-ripening for 18 weeks at 4°.

Treatment at warm temperature matured the embryo, whereas the subsequent cool temperature after-ripened the dormant embryo. During maturation the embryo length doubled, the dry weight tripled and the cotyledons showed visual evidence of differentiation. On the other hand, for dormancy to be overcome a metabolic shift in the embryo occurred during the cool period to provide the active metabolism needed by a germinating seed. This was reflected by a 5 percent per week increase in the respiration capacity of the embryo and a reduction in the amount of oil in the seed.

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Rochelle R. Beasley and Paula M. Pijut

Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash; Oleaceae) is a native hardwood species in northeastern North America occurring in Newfoundland west to Manitoba and south to Iowa, Illinois, West Virginia, and Virginia ( Wright and Rauscher, 1990 ). Black ash has

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Arturo Pardo, Arturo de Juan, Manuel Alvarez-Ortí, and José E. Pardo

study, we have evaluated the production (number, yield, unitary weight, and earliness) and quality (color, dry matter, texture, protein and soluble solids content, ash, and pH) of three commercial mushroom strains (Pla 8.9, Blancochamp BL-40, and Gurelan

Open access

B. R. Lerner and J. D. Utzinger

Abstract

Elemental content was determined for ash of Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh. (black cherry), Celtis occidentalis L. (hackberry), Quercus rubra L. (red oak), and Q. alba L. (white oak), plus a mixture of species containing Pinus (pine), Picea (spruce), and Malus spp. (apple). Ash from the 4 species averaged 26% Ca, 7.0% K, 1% P and smaller amounts of Mg, Mn, Fe, B, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Al, and Na. The species mixture was lower in Ca and K but higher in most of the other elements. The effective calcium carbonate equivalent (total neutralizing power or TNP) of the wood ash ranged from 83% (mixed species) to 116% (red oak). Increased rates of application of wood ash increased soil pH. No significant effects of wood ash applied to soil were found on germination, leaf area, leaf number, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, yield, or leaf tissue elemental analysis of snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at 2400-9700 kg/ha.

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Michael A. Arnold, Garry V. McDonald, and Donita L. Bryan*

Most available information on the effects of planting depths for trees necdotal and/or testing of interactions with other important cultural practices implemented during landscape establishment is lacking. Green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica H. Marshall, hypoxia tolerant species) and bougainvillea goldenraintree (Koelreuteria bipinnata Franchet, hypoxia intolerant species) were grown from seed in 2.3-L containers which were transplanted to 9.3-L black plastic and grown to a marketable size. Root-collars of the plants were maintained level with the surface of the substrate. Green ash (1 May 2001) and bougainvillea goldenraintree (27 Apr. 2001) were transplanted to clay soil field plots with the root-collars at a 7.6 cm above soil grade, at grade, or 7.6 cm below grade. Planting depths for each species were in factorial combinations with 0, 8, 15, or 23 cm of pine bark mulch covering 2.4 m2 of soil beneath each tree. After 2 years, survival of bougainvillea goldenraintrees planted below grade was one third that of those planted at or above grade. Planting below grade reduced survival of green ash by 25% after 3 years. Even the thinnest layer of mulch reduced bougainvillea goldenraintree height and trunk diameters. Height and trunk diameter responses interacted with planting depth for green ash. Mean soil moisture levels were slightly less negative with 8 cm of mulch (-5.8 kPa) compared to bare soil (-9.1 kPa), but increasing mulch thickness to 23 cm (-16.2 kPa) inhibited penetration of irrigation water/rainfall. This data suggests that planting with the root-collar at or above grade greatly enhances survival and growth potential of green ash and bougainvillea goldenraintree and that mulch application should be only at thin layers to inhibit weeds.

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Orville M. Lindstrom

The cold hardiness of seven deciduous hardwoods, red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak, (Quercus alba L.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), sweetgum (Liguidambar stryaciflua L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), river birch (Betula nigra L.) and black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) were evaluated weekly during the fall, winter and spring for three consecutive years. All trees evaluated were established (20-40 years old) and locatd on the Georgia Station Griffin, GA. Each species developed a maximum cold hardiness of at least -30 C by mid-January or early February each season. Response to temperature fluctuations varied with species. Red maple, for example, lost less cold hardiness due to warm mid-winter temperatures than the other species tested, while white oak tended to respond more quickly to the temperature fluctuations. Data will be presented comparing the response of cold hardiness to mid-winter temperature fluctuations for each species for the three year period.

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Steven P. Obst, Charles R. Hall, and Michael A. Arnold

Arizona ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) seedlings were grown in 0.21-L plastic liner containers, half treated with 100 g Cu(OH)2/L latex carrier (formulated as Spin Out), and half nontreated. Seedlings were sequentially transplanted to larger containers, from liners to 2.5-L black plastic containers then to 11.8-L containers resulting in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial combination of container sizes and Cu-treatments (eight combinations with 30 replicates/treatment). Nursery conditions and production procedures were determined from regional nurseries using a modified Delphi technique. Growth responses (height, caliper, market grade) and costs of production were determined for each treatment combination through marketable size in 11.8-L containers. Significant interactions (P ≤ 0.05) among liner and 2.5-L container treatments occurred for end of season trunk diameter and market ratings. Those seedlings grown in both Cu-treated liners and 2.5-L containers tended to have larger calipers and market ratings than other treatment combinations. Growth increases were not realized when containers were treated at a single stage. Copper-treated containers resulted in a 17-second labor savings per container at transplant from 2.5- to 11.8-L containers. Labor requirements were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among treatments at transplant from 0.21- to 2.5-L containers.

Open access

J. P. Sterrett

Abstract

Paclobutrazol [(2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyI)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-)pentan-3-ol)] was injected into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ‘Black Valentine’), California privet seedlings (Ligustrium ovalifolium Hassk.), saplings of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), and one-year-old trees of ‘Golden-Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh), to evaluate growth inhibition response. Also, the extent of translocation and metabolism of injected 14C — paclobutrazol was determined in apple. The height growth, weight, and leaf size of bean plants decreased as the dose of paclobutrazol increased from 0.01 to 1,000 μg/plant. Sprout growth from stumps of privet was reduced as the dose of paclobutrazol increased from 1 μg to 1000 μg/tree. The shoot growth of sapling trees in the field was controlled for at least 2 months with doses of paclobutrazol ranging from 5 mg to 40 mg per tree. When obvious inhibition occurred in apple trees (27 days after injection), 23% of the 14C-activity had been translocated acropetally to the apical shoots. A high percentage of 14C-activity detected was paclobutrazol; 90% of the 14C-activity found in the xylem and phloem and over 85% in the shoot tissue chromatographed with paclobutrazol.

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John M. Dole

. Publications account for more than half of ASHS revenue, followed by the conference (which is not an income-generating event at this time), and membership dues. Its accounts remain in the black due in no small part to the continued efforts of Executive Director

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Hannah M. Mathers and Michele M. Bigger

Many nurseries within Ohio and northeastern, southeastern, and western United States, and Canada have reported severe bark splitting and scald-type problems in 2005. The amount and severity of damage seen in 2005 has been unlike anything seen before. At Ohio State University, samples from across the state started appearing in 2003–04 and increased in incidence in 2005. Growers' reports of exceeding losses of 5% of their inventory or 3000 to 4000 trees per nursery are not uncommon. At an average cost of $125 per tree and with the number of nurseries reporting problems, the stock losses in Ohio have been staggering, in excess of several million dollars. The trees that we have seen problems on in 2005 have been callery pears, yoshino cherry, kwanzan cherry, crab apples, sycamore, serviceberry, hawthorn, mountain ash, black gum, paper bark maple, japanese maples, norway maple `Emerald Queen', red maples, kousa dogwood, magnolia `Elizabeth' and the yellow magnolias such as `Butterflies', `Sawada's Cream', `Yellow Bird', and `Yellow Lantern'. It has long been observed that the actual cause of a bark crack was “preset” by a wound such as the improper removal of a basal sprout, herbicide, leaving of a branch stub, or lack of cold hardiness. Cold and frost may be contributing to the increase in bark splitting across the United States; however, new research results at Ohio State University regarding the effects of DNA preemergent herbicides in the reduction of root hardiness and regrowth potential, sprout removal and other mechanical injuries, and postemergent herbicide application will reveal these are more the causal agents.