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determine the optimal RZT in year-round cultivation environments, we analyzed the effects of RZT on plant performance, biomass production, and LUE. The results of this study provide a basis for further optimization of the optimal growing environment and also

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Intensified interest in plant secondary metabolites for anticancer and other disease treatments has led to recent exploration of medicinal plant growth conditions to optimize biomass production and metabolite synthesis ( Cragg et al., 2009

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for organic lettuce production. Fresh and dry biomass. In each experiment, the fresh biomass of lettuce plants was greater in all OF treatments and IF treatment compared with control plants ( Fig. 4A ). The IF treatment recorded the greatest

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capacity to produce sufficient edible biomass within the lowest possible area, volume, and energy inputs such as irradiance. Salad crops such as lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) have been selected for use in extraterrestrial food-production facilities and the

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also allocated more biomass to fruit when mulched with weed mat than when mulched with either organic mulch but no longer allocated more biomass to wood and leaves with weed mat ( Table 3 ). Annual biomass production in 2008, including fruit and leaves

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Recent surveys show a shift toward more organic blackberry production worldwide ( Strik et al., 2007 ). Approximately 200 ha of organic blackberry are currently planted in the United States, 74% of which are located in California and Oregon

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al., 1999 ), while both stored N and new fertilizer N are allocated to floricane growth and fruit production ( Mohadjer et al., 2001 ). Blackberry has relatively low accumulation of biomass and N compared with other perennial crops due to the low

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Consumption of fruit and vegetable crops rich in lutein and β-carotene carotenoids is associated with reduced risk of cancers and aging eye diseases. Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) ranks highest for lutein concentrations and is an excellent source of dietary carotenoids. Kale plants were grown under varied photoperiods to determine changes in the accumulation of fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll a and b, and lutein and β-carotene carotenoids. The plants were cultured in a controlled environment using nutrient solutions under photoperiod treatments of 6, 12, 16, or 24 hours (continuous). Fresh and dry mass production increased linearly as photoperiod increased, reaching a maximum under the 24-hour photoperiod. Maximum accumulation of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorophyll b occurred under the 24-h photoperiod at 13.5, 10.4, and 58.6 mg/100 g fresh mass, respectively. However, maximum chlorophyll a (235.1 mg/100 g fresh mass) occurred under the 12-hour photoperiod. When β-carotene and lutein were measured on a dry mass basis, the maximum accumulation was shifted to the 16-hour photoperiod. An increase in photoperiod resulted in increased pigment accumulation, but maximum concentrations of pigments were not correlated with maximum biomass production.

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three sites (Columbus, Deming, and Leyendecker), the range of mustard cover crop aboveground biomass at termination was comparable to previous reports of mustard cover crop biomass production in regions outside of New Mexico. For example, brown mustard

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A wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) stand was grown using nutrient film culture in the closed conditions of NASA's Biomass Production Chamber. Rates of photosynthesis and respiration of the entire stand (about 20 m2) were determined daily using a regime of 20 hr light/4 hr dark, 20 C light/16 C dark an average PPF of 600 μmol/m2/s from HPS lamps, and a CO2 cone of 1000 ppm. Fractional interception of PPF by the stand reached a maximum of 0.96 at 24 days from planting. Rates of photosynthesis were constant throughout the photoperiod as determined by short term drawdowns of CO2 throughout the photoperiod. Drawdown rates of CO2 were correlated with rates determined by logging of mass flow of CO2 injected during chamber closure. Photosynthetic drawdowns of CO2 indicated that photosynthesis was not saturated at 1000 ppm CO2 and that the CO2 compensation point was about 50 ppm. Whole stand light compensation points were 200 to 250 μmol/m2/s between days 13 and 70 and then increased rapidly during senescence.

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