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toward various applications ( Mratinić and Fotirić Aksić, 2019 ), including the production of biomass. As a renewable source of energy, biomass has to find its proper place, whereas sustainable land management must provide a permanent and stable source of

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dynamics of biomass distribution, climate-associated phenology, and physiologic bulb characteristics. Our results give insights into the mechanisms underlying summer dormancy, and provide a framework for both future ecologic research on Lycoris and the

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Crop production and research involve descriptions and predictions of plant growth and biomass accumulation and distribution. Both processes involve destructive and nondestructive sampling. Destructive sampling is most common and typically precedes

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Allometric equations were developed for orchard-grown pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees. Trees, ranging in size from 22 to 33 cm in trunk diameter 1.4 m above the ground, were destructively harvested from two sites. The entire aboveground portion of each tree was harvested and then divided into leaves, current season's shoots, and branches ≥1 year old plus trunk. Roots were sampled by digging a trench beginning beneath the trunk and extending to one-half the distance to an adjacent tree, then separating the roots from the soil. Roots were then divided into those less than 1 cm in diameter and those ≥1 cm in diameter. Equations in the form Y = eaXb were developed to estimate dry biomass of most tree components and the whole tree, where Y is the dry weight, e is the base of the natural logarithm, X is the trunk diameter at 1.4 m above the ground, and a and b are coefficients. A linear equation provided the best fit for estimating the weight of the current season's growth. Power equations were also developed to estimate the weights of inner bark and wood for different size trunks or branches.

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biomass ( Rask et al. 2000 ). Degradation of glucosinolates releases compounds toxic to growing plants, but less lethal to dormant seeds or propagules ( Angelini et al. 1998 ; Leblova and Kostir 1962 ; Neubauer et al. 2014 ; Petersen et al. 2001

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Besides being ornamental trees, softwood broadleaves are used for timber and paper production. They are also a good source of renewable energy. Their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen ( N) (Pernar et al., 2012 ) allows for large biomass

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RZT is a crucial factor that influences plant growth and biomass accumulation in an NFT system. RZT affects several physiological processes, including biosynthesis, ion uptake, respiration, accumulation, and distribution (Atkin and Tjoelker, 2003

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Intensified interest in plant secondary metabolites for anticancer and other disease treatments has led to recent exploration of medicinal plant growth conditions to optimize biomass production and metabolite synthesis ( Cragg et al., 2009

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goal of this research was to quantify the effects of this unique clonal propagation technique and grafting on avocado root architecture and biomass allocation. Material and methods Site and plant material. The study site was located at the experimental

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dense clumps and attaining heights of up to 8–9 m ( Lewandowski et al., 2003 ). With such impressive growth rates, A. donax is a leading candidate for cultivated biomass in Mediterranean climates ( Angelini et al., 2009 ; Cosentino et al., 2006 ) and

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