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Kimberly Moore, Scott Greenhut, and Wagner Vendrame

; Heller, 1996 ; King et al., 2009 ). Biofuels are in demand worldwide as a replacement for fossil fuels. Jatropha-based biofuels have been used since World War II in Madagascar, Cape Verde, and Benin, and some of its fuel parameters have met German and

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James L. Brewbaker

for biofuel and is readily cloned. It has been grown at many locations throughout Hawaii, showing high drought tolerance and wide environmental adaptability. It has no known pests or diseases. Several of the 22 recognized species in the New World genus

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Neng-Iong Chan, Bruce E. Rittmann, and James Elser

-generation” biofuel ( Hughes et al., 2013 ), because microalgae can be induced to develop a high lipid content that can be converted to transportation fuel ( Carriquiry et al., 2010 ). The lipophilic fraction of the microalgae also may contain valuable coproducts

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Yulia A. Kuzovkina

, stem fasciation, and contortion; and 4) interesting leaf coloration—golden, pink, or variegated. Another extensive group of Salix cultivars included genotypes with superior technical characteristics for biofuel production and environmental

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Qian Bai, Shuchai Su, Zhu Lin, Pingsheng Leng, and Wenhao Wang

Pistacia chinensis Bunge is a pioneer tree for afforestation, and of high value as an ornament and for timber and medicine. It has also become the preferred biofuel tree in northern China in current years, with a broader development prospect. However, this development is seriously limited due to its dioecious character (separate sexes), because the male (nonfruit) trees are indispensable for pollination, and this leads to a waste of field and low yields. Fortunately, this bottleneck can be broken with the emergence of rare monoecious (having both female and male flowers, and even bisexual flowers) resources in Hebei Province, China. To determine their cultivation characteristics, the variation characteristics and blooming phenophase of local Pistacia were recorded with text, data, and images, by germplasm resources survey, telephone interviews, and field visits. Results showed that 1) 23 monoecious Pistacia were found, with very complex morphological features. 2) The branches of different gender types, ordered by inflorescence length were female > female on monoecious trees > bisexual flowers > inflorescence with male and female > male on monoecious trees > male. Ordered by inflorescence width: female > bisexual flower > female on monoecious trees > inflorescence with male and female > male on monoecious trees > male. Among these, the inflorescence length, inflorescence width, floret diameter, and floret spacing of bisexual flowers were significantly greater than that of male flowers, providing a basis to judge gender type without destructive sampling. 3) Gender types were unstable in successive years—female, male, mixed, or bisexual flowers could convert to another gender within 1 year, except that no female became male, and the overall trend was from male to mixed or bisexual gender in recent years. 4) The blooming phenophase changed a lot among different strains and sex types, which could enlarge the blooming period.

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Harry Janes, James Cavazzoni, Guna Alagappan, David Specca, and Joseph Willis

A qualitative systems approach to controlled environment agriculture (CEA) is presented by means of several multi-institutional projects integrated into a demonstration greenhouse at the Burlington County Resource Recovery Complex (BCRRC), N.J. The greenhouse has about 0.4 ha of production space, and is located about 800 m from the about 40-ha BCRRC landfill site. A portion of the landfill gas produced from the BCRRC site is used for microturbine electricity generation and for heating the greenhouse. The waste heat from the turbines, which are roughly 15 m from the greenhouse, is used as the main heat source for the greenhouse in the winter months, and to desalinate water when heating is not required. Recovery of this waste heat increases the energy efficiency of the four 30-kW turbines from about 25% to 75%. Within the greenhouse, aquaculture and hydroponic crop production are coupled by recycling the aquaculture effluent as a nutrient source for the plants. Both the sludge resulting from the filtered effluent and the inedible biomass from harvested plants are vermicomposted (i.e., rather than being sent to the landfill), resulting in marketable products such as soil amendments and liquid plant fertilizer. If suitably cleaned of contaminants, the CO2 from the landfill gas may be used to enrich the plant growing area within the greenhouse to increase the yield of the edible products. Landfill gas from the BCRRC site has successfully been processed to recover liquid commercial grade CO2 and contaminant-free methane-CO2, with the potential for this gas mixture to be applied as a feedstock for fuel cells or for methanol production. Carbon dioxide from the turbine exhaust may also be recovered for greenhouse enrichment. Alternatively, algal culture may be used to assimilate CO2 from the turbine exhaust into biomass, which may then be used as a biofuel, or possibly as fish feed, thus making the system more self-contained. By recycling energy and materials, the system described would displace fossil fuel use, mitigating negative environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, and generate less waste in need of disposal. Successful implementation of the coupled landfill (gas-to-energy · aquaponic · desalination) system would particularly benefit developing regions, such as those of the Greater Caribbean Basin.

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Donald N. Maynard

and that some are getting attention as raw materials for biofuel production. The newest volume in this series follows a pattern similar to that of previous books. There are five chapters in the Vegetables and Tubers section, eight chapters in the

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Yingchao Lin, Dejun Kong, Zhihong Wang, Yi Chen, Zhixiao Yang, Chun Wu, Hui Yang, and Lili Chen

traditional tobacco-growing areas. The tobacco plant can offer a wide range of alternative applications, such as producing biogas, a generalized biofuel that is widely accepted, by placing green tobacco tissues (stems and leaves) inside an anaerobic digester

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Barbara M. Schmidt

cane, sugar beets, or sorghum. Therefore, many large fermentation manufacturers are located close to these production regions. During 2010–2011, 28% of the U.S. corn crop went to biofuel production instead of food/feed ( World Bank, 2011c ). This is

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James F. Hancock and Charles Stuber

dealing with a “safe and secure food and fiber system” indicated that a key issue associated with our supply of energy is the increasing need to produce biofuels. The production of biofuels through the use of plant products provides cleaner, more