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Organic farming is rapidly increasing in U.S. agriculture. Weeds are listed as the number one problem for organic producers ( Walz, 1999 ). Only a few organic herbicides are used in organic farming systems ( Webber III et al., 2012 ). MSMs as by

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adding GDD soil for the entire growing season. Weed management. Pre-emergence herbicides (Outlook 1.1 L·ha −1 and Callisto 0.37 L·ha −1 ) were applied to the entire experimental area on 24 May in 2017 and 2018, 1 and 2 d after seeding, respectively

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Because of the limited number of herbicides in spinach, beet, and swiss chard, a screening study was initiated to identify new preemergence herbicides. Field soil at the study was a fine sandy loam. The study was initiated on 8 Apr. 2004 at Bixby, Okla. Each plot had four direct seeded rows of spinach, beet and chard. 22 treatments were replicated four times in a RBD that included a nontreated check. Treatments used 12 preemergence herbicides. Herbicides were applied PRE with a research sprayer at 20 GPA in a 6-ft swath perpendicular to crop rows. The experimental area received 0.5 inch of irrigation after application. Callisto (mesotrione) and V10146 (Valent exp. compound) both resulted in 100% death of beet, chard and spinach seedlings. Herbicides that had injury at or below Dual Magnum included Pyramin (pyrazon), Nortron (ethofumesate), Lorox (linuron), and Bolero (thiobencarb) tank-mixed with Bio-Power. Yields were zero for the nontreated check and several treatments due to weed competition and the lack of crop plants in some plots. Treatments with the highest beet yields included Dual Magnum at 0.5 lbs/acre, Pyramin at 3.6 lbs/acre, and Outlook (dimethenamid-P) at 0.25 lbs/acre (11,822, 8,034, 8,010 lbs/acre respectively). Highest chard yields were from Dual Magnum at 0.5 lbs/acre, Pyramin at 3.6 lbs/acre, Outlook at 0.5 lbs/acre + Bio-Power, and Outlook at 0.5 lbs (12,753, 12,596, 11,495, and 10,563 lbs/acre, respectively). Spinach yields were highest for Dual Magnum at 0.5 lbs/acre, Define (flufenacet) at 0.3 lbs/acre, and Outlook at 0.5 lbs/acre + Bio-Power (4,465, 4,259, and 3,207 lbs/acre, respectively).

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Consolidated, Springfield, IL) at 10% by vol. spray solution (2011 and 2012), d -limonene (GreenMatch Burndown Herbicide ® , 55% d -limonene; Marrone Bio Innovations, Davis, CA) at 14% spray solution (2013 only). The citrus by-product d -limonene was

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Annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) is considered a most problematic annual winter weed in managed turfgrass, such as golf courses ( Cross et al., 2013 ). This weed has traditionally been controlled by herbicides; however, populations that are resistant

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172 179 https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2019.88 Shaner, D.L. Senseman, S. Burke, I. Hanson, B. 2014 Herbicide handbook Weed Science Society of America Lawrence, KS, USA Shen, K. Zheng, Y. 2017 Efficacy of bio-based liquid mulch

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., 2007a ). There are some particularly persistent perennial weeds adapted to low pH soils of blueberry fields. To control weeds, nonselective and broad-spectrum herbicides, such as glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium, are preferable; however, they can

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, chemical weed control using post-emergent, systemic herbicides like glyphosate has become a vital production practice in the Florida citrus industry. After its introduction in the 1970s, glyphosate became very popular among citrus growers for its broad

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most used preemergence herbicide (i.e., applied before weed emergence to prevent weed seed germination and establishment) in citrus production ( USDA 2020 ). Diuron is a substituted urea that belongs to the phenyl amide family and phenyl urea subclass

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); however, few studies have focused on how changes in substrate properties may impact weed growth and/or preemergence herbicide performance. As growers must produce weed-free plants to meet consumer demand ( Simpson et al., 2002 ), it is important to know if

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