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Carol A. Miles, Travis R. Alexander, Gregory Peck, Suzette P. Galinato, Christopher Gottschalk and Steve van Nocker

Current demands for diverse, natural, and locally produced beverages have resulted in the reappearance of hard apple ( Malus × domestica ) ciders in food markets, restaurants, and bars. In 2018, revenues from hard cider, perry [fermented pear

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Mack Moyo, Manoj G. Kulkarni, Jeffrey F. Finnie and Johannes Van Staden

is used to brew an alcoholic beverage with an annual gross value of ≈$80 to $100 U.S. per household ( Emanuel et al., 2005 ; Shackleton et al., 2008 ). The oil is in high demand in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries ( Kleiman et al., 2008

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Donglin Zhang, Hongwen Huang and Dongyan Hu*

Horticultural plants include fruit, vegetable, ornamental, turf, medicinal, beverage, spice, and other economic species. Although these plants originally derive from wild populations and play a vital role in our daily life, their importance on protecting biodiversity has not been addressed. With tremendous driving force of their monetary value, farmers, gardeners, breeders, and researchers have domesticated, selected, and bred many new horticultural crops, which ultimately increase biological diversity in cultivated plant communities. Both morphological and molecular data from 90 accessions of cultivated Cephalotaxus and 48 accessions of cultivated Chamaecyparis thyoides demonstrated their wide range of morphological differences and more than 43% of genetic dissimilarity coefficients. In US alone, one new cultivar of Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum was released to the nursery industry every year since the first plant was introduced from Wuhan Botanical Garden in 1983. Obviously, human activities rapidly accelerate evolutions. To preserve and reproduce new and rare taxa, regeneration of these plants is challenging. Rooting of Magnolia grandiflora stem cuttings, overcoming Cephalotaxus seed dormancy, experimenting Pinus strobus embryogenesis, and overwintering Stewartia cuttings should be applied for reproduction studies of unusual horticultural clones. For plants that could not be regenerated with today's propagation methods, their seeds, tissues, pollen, and embryos should be preserved as some USDA labs do for heirloom horticultural crops. In the future, with aid of advanced science and technology, we should be able to regenerate those plants from preserved materials and increase biological diversity.

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G.R. Duran, P.C. Coggins and J.A. Wilbourn

Nationally, about 97,900 acres of sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas) were planted for 2001 with a yield of 156 cwt. Many of the sweetpotatoes are left in the field as unmarketable culls. A juicing technique used to produce a value-added product from the culls would be valuable to the sweetpotato farmer and the industry as a whole. This process would enable the farmers to turn an unmarketable product into a potentially profitable juice product. The research objective was to determine the usable yields of sweetpotato culls by extracting the juice. This would provide a value-added juice product for sweetpotato farmers. Juice would be easily transported and stored. Sweetpotato culls were collected, washed, and dried. Samples were chopped, weighed and processed with an automatic juice extractor (Juiceman Jr., Mount Prospect, Ill.). The extracted juice and remaining pulp were removed and weighed. Percent juice, pulp, and loss were calculated on a weight basis. Results showed that when processed with a grinding/centrifugal type juice extractor, an average of 53.6% of the initial weight from sweetpotato culls can be extracted as juice. Also, as the initial weight of the culls increased, the percent juice extracted increased. The combined solids collected from the extracted pulp and the pulp remaining after equipment disassembly was on average 42.66% of the initial weight. The unsalvageable percent of juice and pulp was on average 3.93%. These results suggest that sweetpotato culls yield about half of their original weight as juice. Juice extraction may be a viable option for processing non-market grade sweetpotato culls. Sweetpotato juice may be consumed as a beverage or combined with other juices to form a variety of juice blends.

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W. Letchamo and A. Gosselin

Camomile (Chamomilla recutita Rauschert) is an annual plant from the Asteraceae. Camomile is one of the most frequently used medicinal plants, and has a commanding place in the world market. The flower heads are used in pharmaceutical preparations, and the cosmetic and beverage industries. The extracts from camomile flowers, to mention some, are known to have the most-effective sedative (3.29× compared to papaverin), antidepressive, tumor -protective, antiinflammatory, and accelerative properties in the regeneration of skin tissues. It is considered a panecia, due to its strong effects among many others, in the treatment of gastric ulcers, stomatology, respiratory complications, nephritis and nephrolithiasis (dilution of the kidney stones), and urinary bladder stones (cystolithiasis). Recently, successful research programs have been carried out to develop new camomile varieties with higher flower yield and better content of the active substances, suitable for mechanical harvesting under conventional cultivation. Apart from growing consumer demand for organically grown herbal products, the use of some herbicides and insecticides has resulted in the shifts of the content of active substances. The yield stability, content, and composition of the active substances under organic cultivation, particularly in areas with extreme climatic conditions, such as northern North America, should be investigated. We identified and introduced new camomile varieties and studied their suitability for organic field cultivation in Quebec, Canada. We studied over-wintering ability, yield potentials, and the content and composition of essential oil, flavonoids, and coumarins under field conditions. The physiology of the new varieties, particularly the relationship between photosynthesis and yield formation, and the accumulation of the active substances under different cultivation conditions remain to be studied.

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Marco A. Palma and Hayk Khachatryan

The U.S. environmental horticulture industry, or green industry, is comprised of wholesale nursery, greenhouse, turfgrass sod producers, landscape design, construction and maintenance firms, and wholesale and retail distribution firms such as garden

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall and Marco A. Palma

,218 jobs), Merchant wholesalers of nondurable goods (15,732 jobs), Food and beverage stores (14,074 jobs), and Non-store retailers (12,170 jobs). The economic contributions by the green industry in U.S. states and regions are summarized in Tables 5 and 6

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John J. Haydu, Alan. W. Hodges and Charles R. Hall

If a consumer survey of the general public were conducted today on the U.S. turfgrass industry, most people would likely know little about it. One could go even further by stating that many researchers and specialists in Land Grant Universities

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Li-Chun Huang and Li-Chun Chen

Facebook posts in the food, beverage, and automobile industries have discovered that the numbers of likes that entertaining posts receive have far outnumbered those of posts in other content categories ( Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013 ; Tafesse, 2015 ). By

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Florence A. Becot, Terence L. Bradshaw and David S. Conner

Hard cider production has increased dramatically in the United States in recent years with an annualized growth rate of 50% between 2009 and 2014 and revenues totaling $292.5 million in 2014 ( Petrillo, 2014 ). The growth of the industry has been