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Amy Fulcher, Sarah A. White, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Joseph C. Neal, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, Craig R. Adkins, S. Kristine Braman, Matthew R. Chappell, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Steven D. Frank, Stanton A. Gill, Frank A. Hale, William E. Klingeman, Anthony V. LeBude, Karen Rane, and Alan S. Windham

continues clockwise in a feedback loop that repeats for version 2 (v.2) and subsequent versions. The inner core: the focus group feedback, simulator, and beta testing reinforce the design, development, promotion, and launch processes. The same focus group

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Seon-Ok Kim, Su-Been Pyun, and Sin-Ae Park

and nonhorticultural activities. The POMS is a tool developed by McNair et al. (1971) and has been tested and validated in a variety of contexts. The POMS has been validated and justified for use in elderly people in Korea by Shin (1996) . It

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A. Maaike Wubs, Yun T. Ma, Ep Heuvelink, Lia Hemerik, and Leo F.M. Marcelis

done to assure the most appropriate one is used. For different types of fruit and developmental rates, this article aimed at obtaining growth functions for growth of individual fruit of pepper. We tested which of the most commonly used functions, namely

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Michael A. Arnold, Mary H. Meyer, Tim Rhodus, and Susan S. Barton

alternating basis between the two coeditors. Beta testing and launch Beta testing began in Nov. 2015 with solicited materials for the various categories from among the ASHS membership to test the workflow of the system. A positive outcome was that even among

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Arthur Villordon, Julio Solis, Don LaBonte, and Christopher Clark

guidelines that Marcot et al. (2006) proposed for developing, testing, and revising BBNs, especially in identifying alpha-, beta-, and gamma-level models. The first step comprised of creating influence diagrams (AM1 to AM12) of hypothesized “causal web” of

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Sarah J. Pethybridge, Niloofar Vaghefi, and Julie R. Kikkert

CLS lesions on leaves may lead to rejection. The disease is also important in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris ) and C. beticola isolates are known to infect either host ( Jacobsen and Franc, 2009 ; Ruppel, 1986 ). Cercospora beticola

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Virender Kumar, Daniel C. Brainard, and Robin R. Bellinder

transplants are used. However, effects of cover crop residues on transplant growth have not been extensively tested. Because nitrogen is an important stimulant of weed seeds of many weed species and a critical factor in the growth of both weeds and crops, the

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Anita Gunnarsson, Börje Lindén, and Ulla Gertsson

a crop rotation with and without biodigestion of crop residues on a sandy soil in southern Sweden. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that harvesting the ley and beet foliage for biodigestion and returning the biodigestor effluent as

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Peter J. Mes*, James R. Myers, and Balz Frei

A nutritional study was initiated to determine which carotenoids found in tomato result in decreased lipid oxidation ex vivo. To compare the carotenoids in a human diet without the use of purified supplements, tomatoes expressing nonfunctional enzymes in the carotenoid pathway were used. Tomato lines carrying the genes t, B, ogc, Del, or r were grown to produce fruit containing with high levels of prolycopene, beta-carotene, lycopene, or delta-carotene respectively, or low total carotenoids in r. Juices were processed from these lines and used in a dietary intervention study. Plasma samples were drawn before and after consumption of each juice. These samples were subjected to a battery of tests to analyze the contribution of carotenoids to the total lipid antioxidant status. Results of these tests are discussed.

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Dean A. Kopsell, David E. Kopsell, and Joanne Curran-Celentano

Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) ranks highest among vegetable crops for lutein and beta-carotene carotenoids, which function as antioxidants in disease prevention. Nitrogen (N) rate and N form influence plant growth and alter pigment composition and accumulation. The objectives of these experiments were to investigate the effect of N rate and form on biomass and accumulation of plant pigments in the leaf tissues of kale. Three kale cultivars were grown using nutrient solution culture. In the first study, N treatment rates were 6, 13, 26, 52, and 105 mg·L–1, at a constant NH4-N:NO3-N ratio. Kale biomass increased linearly in response to increasing N rate. On a fresh weight basis, lutein and beta-carotene were not affected by N rate. However, carotenoids calculated on a dry weight basis increased linearly in response to increasing N rate. In a second study, kale was grown under: 100% NH4-N:0% NO3-N, 75% NH4-N:25% NO3-N, 50% NH4-N:50% NO3-N, 25% NH4-N:75% NO3-N, and 0% NH4-N:100% NO3-N, at a N rate of 105 mg·L–1. Linear increases in biomass were observed for each kale cultivar as percentage of NO3-N increased. Lutein concentrations increased 155%, 73%, and 39% for `Toscano', `Winterbor', and `Redbor' kale, respectively, as N form changed 0% NO3-N to 100% NO3-N. Concentration of leaf beta-carotene increased linearly in response to increasing NO3-N in each cultivar tested. Nitrogen management should be considered in crop production programs designed to increase the concentrations of nutritionally important carotenoids.