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James A. Schrader, Diana R. Cochran, Paul A. Domoto, and Gail R. Nonnecke

produce crops that consistently meet acceptable standards of fruit yield and quality (berry composition). Achieving consistent production of high-quality fruit has been identified as one of the most important factors for improving the commercial appeal of

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Krista Shellie, Jacob Cragin, and Marcelo Serpe

the laboratory for determination of fruit maturity, cluster, and berry weight. All the remaining clusters were then removed from the vine and weighed to determine yield per vine. Dormant cuttings from the interior two vines in each panel were weighed

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Michael E. Tarter and Stefano Poni

The variate “cluster weight” is an important Vitis vinifera vine yield component and its main subcomponents are berry number and berry weight ( Clingeleffer et al., 2000 ). This variate's values can be affected by factors that include scion

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A.M. Akl, F.F. Ahmed, F.M. El-Morsy, and M.A. Ragab

The positive influence of fertilizing `Red Roomy' grapevines with four biofertilizers (active dry yeast, phosphorene, rhizobacterium, and nitrobein) on berry set and productivity was investigated during 1995 and 1996. The improvement occurred in berry set and yield, as well as physical and chemical properties in vines treated with the four biofertilizers in the following ascending order: active dry yeast, nitrobein, rhizobacterium, and phosphorene. Highly significant differences in characters were observed between treated and untreated vines. The best results with regard to yield and quality of berries was obtained in `Red Roomy' vines biofertilized with phosphorene or rhizobacterium.

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Todd L. Mervosh and James A. LaMondia

The effects of terbacil herbicide on strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. `Honeoye') yield and black root rot disease were determined in field plots at two locations in Connecticut over 4 years. Terbacil treatments at up to four times the maximum label dosage caused some temporary foliar chlorosis but did not affect the health of structural or perennial roots and associated feeder roots. Development of secondary root growth (perennial roots) was not influenced by terbacil. Terbacil had no effect on the quantity of lesion nematodes [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filip & Schur. Stek.] extracted or the amount of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae Husain and McKeen isolated from strawberry roots. At both locations, R. fragariae was common on plant roots by the fourth year. Terbacil treatments did not affect strawberry yields in terms of number or weight of ripe berries per plot. Our results indicate that terbacil does not contribute to black root rot or decreased yields in `Honeoye' strawberry. Chemical name used: 5-chloro-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-methyl-2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (terbacil).

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Bernadine Strik, Gil Buller, and Edward Hellman

The following pruning treatments were studied in mature `Bluecrop' (1996-2000) and `Berkeley' (1996-98) plants: 1) “conventional” pruning with removal of unproductive canes, thinning of 1-year-old shoots at the base of the bush, and removal of any unproductive wood or thinning of excessive fruiting wood near the top of the bush, as required; 2) “speed” pruning involving removal of one or two of the most unproductive canes at the base of the bush; and 3) “un-pruned” where no pruning was done for the length of this study. Conventional pruning took an average of 6.4 min/plot, while speed pruning saved 88.8% time. There was no pruning treatment effect on the percentage of fruit buds in `Berkeley' (42%) or `Bluecrop' (34%) or percent fruit set (70% to 90%, depending on cultivar and year) in any year. Un-pruned plants of both cultivars had significantly greater yield than conventionally pruned plants, depending on the year, while speed pruning generally resulted in intermediate yields. Un-pruned and speed-pruned plants produced berries that were 19% to 27% smaller than conventionally pruned plants, depending on year. The fruit harvest season of un-pruned plants began 3 to 5 days later and lasted a week longer than that of conventionally pruned plants. The harvest efficiency of un-pruned plants was reduced as much as 51% in the later years of this study and was most closely correlated with berry weight. Conventionally pruned plants had a significantly higher percentage of the above-ground dry weight allocated to 1-year-old wood and crown than un-pruned plants. In `Bluecrop', N concentration tended to be higher in the crown of conventionally pruned plants than in un-pruned or speed-pruned plants. Conventionally pruned `Bluecrop' plants had significantly higher concentrations of K and P and lower N than un-pruned plants and `Berkeley' had lower concentrations of N, than un-pruned plants. Results indicate that not pruning mature plants may be an option in the short-term, but may have undesirable effects for long-term sustainability.

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N. Kubota, H. Takigawa, X. Ri, and K. Yasui

Shoot and berry growth, sugar. titratable acidity, and anthocyanin contents of berries and crop yields of “Fujiminori” grapes (Vitis vinifera × V. labruscana) were determined in vines grafted 10 eight different rootstocks: 3309, 3306, 101-14. 5BB. 5C, 8B. SO4, and 420A. Three-year-old vines of 5BB stock and S-year-old vines of each of the other stocks grown in an unheated plastic house were used for this investigation.

Shoot growth was more vigorous on vines grafted to 5BB compared to 3309, SO4, and 8B. The highest yield per unit area was observed in vines grafted to 3306. followed in order by 5BB, 3309, 101-14, SO4, 5C, 8B, and 420A. The largest berry size was observed in vines grafted to 3306, followed by 5BB, 101-14, 3309, 8B, 5C, SO4, and 420A. Berries of vines grafted to 420A and 5BB had the highest tota1 soluble solids, followed in descending order by 8B, 101-14. and 5C. Titratable acidity of berry juice was lowest in vines grafted to 420A. The anthocyanin content of berry skin was higher in vines grafted to 420A and 101-14 than in berries of other stocks. GA-treatment did not increase the percentage of seedless berries of this cultivar to a commercially acceptable level for any of the rootstocks used.

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A.M. Akl, F. Ahmed Faissal, and S. Youssef William

Nutritional status of the vines, berry set, and yield as effected by the application of cycocel at 0.0, 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm and/or using a mixture of Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe at 0.3% were studied. Cycocel was applied at different periods starting immediately after pruning and ending at 30 days after berry set. Results showed that three sprays of cycocel immediately after pruning, 15 days before first bloom, and at 30 days after berry set, particularly with the application of the four micronutrients together at 0.3%, proved much more effective in increasing the leaf content of total carbohydrates, total N, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Fe as well as berry set, number of clusters, yield and average cluster weight. Spraying Red Roomy vines three times with cycocel at 1000 ppm in combined with Mn + Zn + Cu + Fe at 0.3% gave satisfactory improvement in nutritional status and yield.

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Youzhi Chen, John M. Smagula, Walter Litten, and Scott Dunham

In a managed field of native Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. clones, the effect of fall foliar sprays of B at 345 g·ha-1 and/or Ca at 3,450 g·ha-1 in remedying tissue deficiency of B varied among 12 clones, as seen in pollen germinability and on individual stems as seen in flower number, fruit set, and number of harvestable berries. With Ca applied alone, increased berry size did not overcome yield reduction due to fewer flowers and berries per stem. Berry diameter and mass correlated better to number of seeds of germinable size than to total number of seeds. Pollen germination averaged 17.4% on stigmata from untreated clones, and all three treatments (B, Ca, B + Ca) increased that average by 8%. More seeds per berry with the B-alone treatment implies more ovules fertilized when B deficiency is remedied. No relation was found between in vitro and in vivo pollen germination.

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A.M. Akl, A.M. Wassel, F.F. Ahmed, and M.A. Abdel Hady

This investigation was conducted during the 1991, 1992, and 1993 seasons to study the effect of different concentrations and number of sprays urea and/or boric acid on yield and berries quality of Red Roomy grapevines. Two, three, four, or five sprays for both urea at 0.5% 1%, or 1.5% and /or boric acid at 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.3% in addition to the control treatment were applied. Combined sprays of urea and boric acid was preferable in increasing the number of clusters, yield per vine, berry set parentage, fertility coefficient. weight, length and shoulder of cluster, weight and dimensions of berry, total soluble solids, total sugars, and total anthocyanins in grapes and in reducing the percentages of cracked and shot berries and the total acidity compared with the single application of both. Spraying urea at 1.0% in combined with boric acid at 0.2% four times (i.e., at growth start, first bloom, immediately after berry set, and at 30 days later) is recommended for achieving high yield and fairly good berries quality in `Red Roomy' grape vines.