dudaim group is limited to the studies of Aubert and Pitrat (2006) , Shu et al. (1995) , and Zeinalipour et al. (2017) . The goal of this work was to evaluate the storability, quality changes, and general postharvest behavior of different maturity
Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred in shoot apices of two diploid (2n = 22) Hatiora ×graeseri Barthlott ex D. Hunt (Easter cactus) clones and yielded stable periclinal cytochimeras with a diploid epidermis and tetraploid subepidermis. The cytochimeras produced disomic gametes (n = 22) and displayed tetrasomic inheritance at polymorphic isozyme loci. Diploid clones were highly self-incompatible (SI) but both cytochimeras were self-compatible (SC). Analysis of pollen tube growth in selfed or outcrossed styles revealed that polyploidy altered the incompatibility phenotype of pollen without affecting the incompatibility phenotype of the pistil. Morphological data (guard cell length, stomatal density, and pollen diameter), segregation ratios at isozyme loci, and fruit/seed yields indicate that S1 progeny are SC, nonchimeral, and tetraploid. Breakdown of the SI system in the cytochimeras was attributed to formation of compatible heteroallelic pollen. These results provide a rational explanation for the correlation between ploidy level and breeding behavior in cacti. Production of SC autotetraploid clones from SI diploids by chromosome doubling may be useful in development of cacti as fruit crops.
The Green Brigade, organized by the Bexar County Agricultural Extension Service in San Antonio, Texas, is a community-based horticultural program for juvenile offenders based on the earn while learning philosophy. This study determined if participation in the Green Brigade Program improved self-esteem, locus of control, interpersonal relationships, and attitudes toward school, toward gardening and toward the environment as well as decreased recidivism of juvenile offenders. To measure psychological variables, a pre-test, post-test design was implemented using the Self-Report of Personality from The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). A questionnaire, developed by the researchers, measured environmental attitudes as well as basic horticultural knowledge. Youths participating in the Green Brigade were pre-tested on the first day of the session and post-tested on the final day of the 6-month session. Comparisons were made between children based on age, ethnic background, gender, and session of the Green Brigade in which they participated. Results determined the relationship between participation in the Green Brigade and the dependent variables mentioned previously.
-based best landscape management practices and they have increasingly turned to innovative approaches to changing consumer behaviors ( Saurí, 2013 ). Extension professionals may incorporate principles of an underused behavior change strategy, social marketing
; University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2011 ). However, to address environmental problems such as water scarcity it is necessary for people to change specific behaviors that influence the issue ( Andreasen, 2006 ). Changing
on the hysteretic behavior for determining growing media quality. Frequent changes in the water content of growing media could influence water retention properties as well as solid phase organization (shrinkage/swelling) ( Fonteno et al., 1981
past few decades it has been demonstrated that discrete sections of the electromagnetic spectrum tickle specific photoreceptors that then ignite plant sensory networks, ultimately resulting in a change in content, stature, or behavior. These concepts
showed little change in sorptive behavior. Bark was efficient at approaching or reaching its CC from surface irrigation with all treatment combinations. As MC decreased, the irrigation volume required to reach maximum retention increased, although no
perspective, labeling invasive plants could potentially change the behavior of some consumers, but there still exists a significantly large market share (50%) that might not be affected by the native/invasive labeling. Other policies need to be investigated to
growth. Alternatively, he suggests that PGRs may reduce nutrient content by affecting nutrient uptake as a result of reduced stomatal conductance and water uptake. In the present study, the changes in nutrient content associated with PGR treatment were