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Sandra M. Reed, Gary R. Bachman, and W. Edgar Davis

). Commonly known as beautyberries, several species of Callicarpa are cultivated as garden plants. They are grown primarily for their ornamental fruits (drupes), which are typically violet to purple in color, ripen in early autumn, and persist for a short

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, and David A. Knauft

species found in southeast Asia, specifically the Philippine Islands ( Atkins, 1999 ). There are ≈28 New World species, of which 16 are endemic to Cuba ( Moldenke, 1936 ). The native distribution of american beautyberry ( C. americana L.) in the United

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Ryan N. Contreras and John M. Ruter

often cymose ( Bramley, 2009 ; Moldenke, 1936 ). Beautyberries, as they are commonly referred, are grown primarily for their showy berry-like drupes produced in fall. However, species have been found to contain a number of compounds that have

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S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, D.R. Sandrock, M. Paz, C. Wiese, and Meghan M. Brennan

methods Ten native Florida taxa (beautyberry, fringe tree, inkberry, yaupon holly, virginia sweetspire, wax myrtle, chickasaw plum, saw palmetto, walter's viburnum, and coontie) and 10 nonnative taxa (golden dewdrop, cape jasmine, crape myrtle, japanese

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Lane Greer and John M. Dole

Six defoliants were applied in fall and tested for their efficacy in preharvest defoliation of field grown curly willow (Salix matsudana `Tortuosa'), american bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and american beautyberry (Callicarpa americana). Defoliants included acetic acid, chelated copper, crop oil concentrate (COC), ethephon, dimethipin plus COC, pelargonic acid, and a tap water control. For chelated copper, a concentration of 800 mg·L–1 was most effective at promoting defoliation, providing 100% defoliation of american bittersweet and 76% defoliation of american beautyberry. For curly willow and american beautyberry, all concentrations of dimethipin produced good or excellent defoliation. Increasing concentrations of ethephon from 200 to 2500 mg·L–1 increased defoliation from 0% to 67%. Pelargonic acid was not effective at promoting defoliation of woody plants at the concentrations used. In an experiment conducted during spring using containerized curly willow, irrigation was stopped for 0, 3, or 6 days before defoliants were applied, but none of the irrigation treatments promoted defoliation. In a postharvest study using cut curly willow, stems were held in distilled water at 5, 20, or 35 °C for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days. Holding cut stems of curly willow at 20 °C promoted 68% defoliation, compared to 53% or 28% for 5 or 35 °C, respectively.

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Lane Greer and John M. Dole

Six defoliants were applied in fall and tested for their efficacy in preharvest defoliation of fieldgrown curly willow (Salix matsudana `Tortuosa'), american bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and american beautyberry (Callicarpa americana). Defoliants included acetic acid, chelated copper, crop oil concentrate surfactant (COC), ethephon, dimethipin plus COC, pelargonic acid, and a tap water control. For chelated copper, a concentration of 800 mg·L–1 (ppm) was most effective at promoting defoliation, providing 100% defoliation of american bittersweet and 76% defoliation of american beautyberry. For curly willow and american beautyberry, all concentrations of dimethipin produced good or excellent defoliation. Increasing concentrations of ethephon from 200 to 2500 mg·L–1 increased defoliation from 0% to 67%. Pelargonic acid was not effective at promoting defoliation of woody plants at the concentrations used. In an experiment conducted during spring using containerized curly willow, irrigation was stopped for 0, 3, or 6 days before defoliants were applied, but none of the irrigation treatments promoted defoliation. In a postharvest study using cut curly willow, stems were held in distilled water at 5, 20, or 35 °C (41.0, 68.0, or 95.0 °F) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days. Holding cut stems of curly willow at 20 °C promoted 68% defoliation, compared to 53% or 28% for 5 or 35 °C, respectively.

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Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno

Each year a wide variety of new cultivars and species are evaluated in the National Cut Flower Trial Programs administered by North Carolina State University and the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers. Stems of promising and productive cultivars from the National Trial Program were pretreated with either a commercial hydrating solution or deionized (DI) water and placed in either a commercial holding solution or DI water. Over 8 years, the vase life of 121 cultivars representing 47 cut flower genera was determined. Although there was cultivar variation within each genus, patterns of postharvest responses have emerged. The largest category, with 53 cultivars, was one in which a holding preservative increased vase life of the following genera and species: acidanthera (Gladiolus murielae), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bee balm (Monarda hybrid), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hybrids), campanula (Campanula species), celosia (Celosia argentea), common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), coral bells (Heuchera hybrids), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), ladybells (Adenophora hybrid), lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana), ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), pincushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpurea), pinkflower (Indigofera amblyantha), seven-sons flower (Heptacodium miconioides), shasta daisy (Leucanthemum superbum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), trachelium (Trachelium caeruleum), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans). Hydrating preservatives increased the vase life of four basils, coral bells, and sunflower cultivars. The combined use of hydrator and holding preservatives increased the vase life of three black-eyed susan, seven-sons flower, and sunflower cultivars. Holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 14 cultivars of the following genera and species: ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), false queen anne's lace (Ammi species), knotweed (Persicaria hybrid), lisianthus, pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and zinnia. Hydrating preservatives reduced the vase life of 18 cultivars of the following genera and species: feverfew, lisianthus, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, seven-sons flower, shasta daisy, sneezeweed, sweet william, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. The combined use of hydrating and holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 12 cultivars in the following genera and species: false queen anne's lace, feverfew, pincushion flower, sneezeweed, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. Data for the remaining 50 cultivars were not significant among the treatments; these genera and species included beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), black-eyed susan, blue mist (Caryopteris clandonensis), calendula (Calendula officinalis), campanula, cleome (Cleome hasserliana), common ninebark, dahlia (Dahlia hybrids), delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), flowering peach (Prunus persica forma versicolor), heliopsis (Heliopsis helianthoides), hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum), himalayan honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa), hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata), larkspur (Consolida hybrids), lily of the nile (Agapanthus hybrid), lisianthus, lobelia, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, scented geranium (Pelargonium hybrid), sunflower, sweet william, and zinnia.

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. 376 ) applied acetic acid, chelated copper, crop oil concentrate, ethephon, dimethipin, and pelargonic acid to defoliate curly willow, american bittersweet, and american beautyberry plants in the field. Chelated copper, dimethipin, and high

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Charles L. Cantrell, William B. Evans, M. Wayne Ebelhar, and Christine Coker

, M. Bryson, C. Klun, J.A. Duke, S.O. 2005 Isolation and identification of mosquito-bite-deterrent terpenoids from leaves of American ( Callicarpa americana ) and Japanese ( Callicarpa japonica ) beautyberry J. Agr

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Robert F. Brzuszek, Richard L. Harkess, and Lelia Kelly

the landscape architects and green industry's answers to the same question, which were predominantly tree or shrub types, with few herbaceous plants ( Brzuszek et al., 2007 ). Salvia ( Salvia spp.), beautyberry ( Callicarpa americana ), azalea