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Shufu Dong, Denise Neilsen, Gerry H. Neilsen, and Michael Weis

A simple flatbed-scanner-based image acquisition system was developed for the measurement of `Gala'/M9 (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) apple tree root growth in rhizoboxes with a transparent acrylic sheet on one side. A tree was planted in the center of each rhizobox, and a modified flatbed scanner was periodically used to directly capture high-resolution digital images of roots growing against the transparent wall. Total root length in the images was either measured manually, or by computer mouse tracing, or automatically with a computer image analysis system. Correlations were made among the different measurements. High quality root images were obtained with the adapted scanner system. Significant linear relationships were found between manual and computer traced root length measurements (r = 0.99), traced and automatic measurements (r = 0.76) and manual and automatic measurements (r = 0.75). Apple roots appeared on the transparent wall 34 days after transplanting, and grew rapidly thereafter, reaching a maximum on the transparent wall 59 days after transplanting. Our results showed that the use of a flatbed scanner for the acquisition of root images combined with computer analysis is a promising technique to speed data acquisition in root growth investigations.

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Mahvash Zarei, Majid Azizi, Majid Rahemi, and Ali Tehranifar

and rootstocks within a specific species may considerably vary in salt tolerance. Mechanisms of salt tolerance that might account for these differences include the ability to selectively avoid uptake of Cl − and Na + by roots (so-called root

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Junyang Song

flower bulbs as it is composed of the basal root system and the stem root system. The fleshy basal roots grow at the basal plate under the bulb, while after the shoot has emerged from the soil and grown to a certain height, the stem roots will grow as

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Gretchen B. North and Evan A. Baker

evidence from desert succulents showing the important contribution of older roots, particularly with respect to recovery after drought. In the case of the succulents discussed here, the term “older roots” refers to the proximal root region near the base of

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Keng Heng Chang, Kuan Ting Chang, Ren Shih Chung, Chun Tang Lu, and Ting Fang Hsieh

the measurement of developing roots of Phalaenopsis remains unexplored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a simple and nondestructive technique based on the line intersect principle for evaluating simultaneously more traits of the

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Ji-Yu Zhang, Zhong-Ren Guo, Rui Zhang, Yong-Rong Li, Lin Cao, You-Wang Liang, and Li-Bin Huang

). Data were recorded after 35 d of planting. Each mean is based on three replicates, each of which consisted of 20 cuttings. The cuttings without any auxins treatment (control) did not develop adventitious roots, although they were planted in root

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Desmond G. Mortley, Conrad K. Bonsi, Walter A. Hill, Carlton E. Morris, Carol S. Williams, Ceyla F. Davis, John W. Williams, Lanfang H. Levine, Barbara V. Petersen, and Raymond M. Wheeler

root development of sweetpotato stem cuttings grown in microgravity for 5 d was compared with ground-based controls. Stem cuttings appeared to have regenerated fibrous roots normally in spaceflight and ground-based controls, but roots tended to grow

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

and criteria supplied for rating shoots, roots, and containers (respectively) included 1) plants sampled for shoot ratings that were placed into unused PP containers (blinding), and grower participants were asked to rate shoots based on plant size

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Arthur Villordon, Don LaBonte, and Julio Solis

damage to roots during destructive sampling, a shovel was inserted vertically ≈15 to 20 cm from the base of a hill, pushed at an angle (≈45°), gently rocked up and down, and carefully lifted and pulled back to recover the soil mass around the AR system

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Ana Centeno and María Gómez-del-Campo

propagation bed again. Rooting percentage was calculated as the number of cuttings with at least one root. Percentage of rooted cuttings without callus formation and percentage of cuttings without roots, callus, or basal thickening, that is, without any signs