. Producers on the Sunshine Coast in southeastern Queensland grow strawberries over winter in a subtropical environment, and use mainly short-day cultivars supplied each year as bare-rooted plants grown at about 900 m elevation at Stanthorpe in southern
C.M. Menzel and A. Toldi
C.M. Menzel and L. Smith
Strawberry production in southeastern Queensland, Australia, is based mainly on short-day cultivars supplied each year as bare-rooted transplants from nurseries at Stanthorpe in southern Queensland or from Toolangi in Victoria ( Menzel and Toldi
Christopher M. Menzel and Lindsay Smith
al., 2009 ; Whitaker et al., 2011 ). Producers in southeastern Queensland obtain new bare-rooted transplants from nurseries situated at Stanthorpe in southern Queensland or at Toolangi in Victoria. Conditions in the southern growing area are ≈2 to 3
Christopher M. Menzel and Lindsay Smith
Yields of bare-rooted ‘Festival’ strawberry plants in southeastern Queensland, Australia, were best with a planting in mid-March, with lower yields with earlier or later plantings ( Menzel and Smith, 2011 ). In contrast, large plants with crown
Marc van Iersel
Uprooting and transplanting seedlings can cause root damage, which may reduce water and nutrient uptake. Initiation of new roots and rapid elongation of existing roots may help minimize the negative effects of transplant shock. In this study, seedlings with four true leaves were transplanted into diatomaceous earth and the plants were transferred to a growth chamber, where they were treated with NAA (0, 0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 mg·L-1; 36 mL/plant). The effects of drenches with various amounts of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on the posttransplant CO2 exchange rate of vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] were quantified. Whole-plant CO2 exchange rate of the plants was measured once every 20 minutes for a 28 day period. Seedlings treated with 0.025 or 0.25 mg·L-1 recovered from transplant shock more quickly than plants in the 0 and 2.5 mg·L-1 treatments. Naphthaleneacetic acid drenches containing 0.025 or 0.25 mg·L-1 increased whole-plant net photosynthesis (Pnet) from 10 days, dark respiration (Rdark) from 12 days, and carbon use efficiency (CUE) from 11 days after transplanting until the end of the experiment. The increase in CUE seems to have been the result of the larger size of the plants in these two treatments, and thus an indirect effect of the NAA applications. These differences in CO2 metabolism among the treatments resulted in a 46% dry mass increase in the 0.025 mg·L-1 treatment compared to the control, but shoot-root ratio was not affected. The highest rate of NAA (2.5 mg·L-1) was slightly phytotoxic and reduced the growth rate of the plants.
Monika Walter, Cath Snelling, Kirsty S.H. Boyd-Wilson, Geoff I. Langford and Graeme Williams
System requirements for organic strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) runner production under cover were determined during the 2001-02 and 2002-03 seasons. In the field, yield and fruit quality were assessed for organically produced runners (plug and bare-rooted transplant) in comparison with barerooted conventionally produced runners under organic, BioGro certified production conditions. The preferred organic production system was the enhanced suspended system, where mother plants grew on benches in the tunnel house and the first two runners were potted into growth substrate. This system produced approximately 50 plug transplants/mother plant or 200 plug transplants/m2. The least preferred system was the nursery bed, where mother plants were allowed to produce runners that yielded approximately 100 bare-rooted runners or 100 transplants/m2. Tunnel house production of runners (plug transplants and bare-rooted) allowed earlier planting (March vs. May) compared to field-produced bare-rooted runner plants. The earlier planting date increased yield by approximately 181 g/plant. Under organic production conditions, organically produced runners (plug and bare-rooted transplants) performed at least as well as bare-rooted conventionally produced runners. Our results show that indoor production of organic strawberry runners is possible. We also showed that organically produced runners (bare-rooted and plug transplants) perform similarly in the field compared to bare-rooted conventionally produced runners. Generally, there were no differences in yield or fruit quality among runner sources.
Michael L. Parker and John R. Meyer
Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. `Biscoe'/Lovell) trees were grown in a sandy loam soil under six orchard floor management systems, including five vegetative covers (continuous under the tree) and a vegetation-free control (bare ground). At the end of the fifth year, trees grown in bare ground and nimblewill grass (Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel.) had a significantly larger trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) than trees grown in weedy plots, centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.], or bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge). Trees grown in brome (Bromus mollis L.) did not differ significantly in TCSA from any other treatment. Soil profile excavations of the root system revealed that trees grown in bare ground or with nimblewill had significantly higher root densities than those in the weedy plots or grown with bahiagrass. Vector analysis of root distribution indicated that trees grown in bare ground or nimblewill rooted deeper than trees in all other treatments. The greatest reduction in deep rooting occurred with bahiagrass.
Eugene K. Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley and Ken M. Tilt
Stem cuttings of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb., Rosa L. `Red Cascade', Salvia leucantha Cav., and Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd `Roseo' were inserted into six rooting substrates: monolithic slag [(MgFe)2Al4Si5O18], sand, perlite, vermiculite, Fafard 3B, or fine pine bark. Rooting, initial shoot growth, and ease of dislodging substrate particles from root systems upon bare-rooting by shaking and washing cuttings rooted in monolithic slag were compared to cuttings rooted in the five other substrates. Rooting percentage, number of primary roots per rooted cutting, and total root length per rooted cutting for cuttings rooted in monolithic slag were generally similar to the five other substrates. Particles of monolithic slag were dislodged more readily from root systems by shaking than were the other substrates. Gentle washing removed almost all particles of monolithic slag and sand from the root systems of all taxa and removed almost all particles of pine bark from all taxa except S. scutellarioides `Roseo'. Monolithic slag had a bulk density similar to sand, retained less water than the other substrates, and was similar to perlite, vermiculite, and pine bark in particle size distribution. Our studies indicate that monolithic slag, where regionally available, could provide a viable material for producing bare-root cuttings.
Sharon Morrison, John M. Smagula and Walter Litten
For accelerating the filling in of bare areas in native lowbush blueberry fields or converting new areas to production, micropropagated plantlets rooted after three subcultures outperformed seedlings and rooted softwood cuttings. After 2 years of field growth, they averaged 20.3 rhizomes each of average dry weight 3.5 g, as compared with 5.7 rhizomes of average dry weight 1.1 g for rooted softwood cuttings. After 1 year of field growth, seedlings produced on average 3.3 vs. 0.4 rhizomes from micropropagated plants that had not been subcultured and 0.3 rhizomes from stem cuttings. Apparently, subculturing on cytokinin-rich media induces the juvenile branching characteristic that provides micropropagated plants with the desirable morphologies and growth habits of seedlings. These characteristics favor rhizome production while the benefits of asexual reproduction are retained. The advantage in rhizome production of micropropagation over stem cuttings varied among clones.
Amy N. Wright, Stuart L. Warren and Frank A. Blazich
Root growth is a critical factor in landscape establishment of container-grown woody ornamental species. Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) often does not survive transplanting from containers into the landscape. The objective of this experiment was to compare rate of root growth of mountain laurel to that of Ilex crenata `Compacta' (`Compacta' holly) and Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood). Six-month-old tissue-cultured liners (substrate intact) of mountain laurel, 1-year-old rooted cutting liners (substrate intact) of `Compacta' holly (liner holly), 6-inch bare root seedling liners of sourwood, and 3-month-old bare-root rooted cuttings of `Compacta' holly were potted in containers in Turface™. Prior to potting, roots of all plants were dyed with a solution of 0.5% (w/v) methylene blue. Plants were greenhouse-grown. Destructive harvests were conducted every 2 to 3 weeks (six total harvests). Length, area, and dry weight of roots produced since the start of the experiment, leaf area, and dry weight of shoots were measured. Sourwood and liner holly had greater rate of increase in root length and root dry weight than mountain laurel and bare root holly. Rate of increase in root area was greatest for sourwood, followed by (in decreasing order) liner holly, mountain laurel, and bare-root holly. Increase in root length and root area per increase in leaf area was highest for liner holly, possibly indicating why this species routinely establishes successfully in the landscape. Increase in root dry weight per increase in shoot dry weight was lowest for mountain laurel. The slow rate of root growth of mountain laurel (compared to sourwood and liner holly) may suggest why this species often does not survive transplanting.