required to express bishops violet flower and black seed coat, whereas v expresses white flower and (with T P B ) mineral brown seed coat. The v
lae allele expresses pale pink flowers, with the bannerpetal expressing much darker pink than the wing
plant was selected (selection no. 1) from this accession with the following flower pattern: 1) broken blue veins on nearly white wing petals with a blush of blue color and 2) blue bannerpetal ( Fig. 2 ). The blue color expressed is highly variable from
A new gene for flower color pattern, designated white banner (WB), appeared in material derived from the cross `Harvester' snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) × Plant Introduction (PI) accession 273666 of scarlet runner bean (P. coccineus L.). The WB character has a white banner petal and pale violet wings (veronica-violet 639/2). The inheritance of the mutant was studied in crosses involving dry bean breeding line 5-593, which has bishops-violet (wild-type) flowers, and genetic stocks v BC2 5-593 (white flowers) and blu BC2 5-593 (blue flowers). Segregation in F2 and F3 progenies from the cross v BC2 5-593 × WB supported the hypothesis that WB is controlled by a single recessive gene that is nonallelic with the V locus. An allelism test with blu BC2 5-593 gave evidence that WB is not allelic with the blu locus. The gene symbol wb is proposed for the gene producing WB.
Over the years, by recurrent phenotypic selection, breeding and evaluation, we have developed blue, white, and pink flowered lines of Big Bend bluebonnet (L. havardii Wats.). The racemes, which differ in their sensitivity to ethylene, hold promise as a new specialty cut flower crop. The key determinants of postharvest longevity and performance of cut racemes are flower abscission and senescence. Our studies indicated that the addition of sucrose in the holding solution greatly enhanced the vase life, although the optimum sucrose concentration varied considerably in different lines. In blue flowered lines (e.g., `Texas Sapphire', Blue Select) sucrose concentration greater than 2% induced `osmotic wilting' followed by senescence of the standard petal (banner spot petal), while the petals in white flowered lines (e.g., `Texas Ice', White Select) did not show any wilting even in 4% to 6% sucrose. Ethylene perception inhibitors such as 1-MCP or STS completely suppressed the induction of flower abscission in racemes of all the bluebonnet lines. Ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors (e.g., ReTain, CO++), on the other hand, were relatively less effective than 1-MCP/STS. Both ethylene perception as well as biosynthesis inhibitors, in combination with sucrose, acted additively and further enhanced the postharvest performance by delaying flower abscission/senescence.
The effects of gri on seed coat and flower color were investigated in a study using Lamprecht line V0400 (PI 527735) as the known source of gri. Seed and flower color data were taken on observations of F2, BC1-F2, and BC2,-F2 populations from crosses of V0400 with the recurrent parent S-593. Segregation was observed for a unique flower color pattern: wing petals have a very pale tinge of blue (laelia), and the banner petal has two violet dots (≈3- to 4-mm diameter) on a nearly white background. This very pale laelia flower color cosegregates with gray-white seed coats produced by gri. Furthermore, the very pale laelia color depends on the action of V for expression and is extinguished by v, which produces pure white flowers. Thus, it was demonstrated that the very pale laelia flower color, for which Lamprecht tentatively proposed the gene symbol vpal, is not controlled by an allele at V but is a pleiotropic effect of gri. It was also demonstrated that Lamprecht line V0060 (PI 527717) carries vlae, not v, as indicated by the genotypic notes accompanying the Lamprecht seed collection.
‘Arnold Banner’, is a sport of the common eastern redbud ( C. canadensis var. canadensis ) with extraordinarily unusual and beautiful nearly white flowers that retain the pink striping of the nectar guides on the bannerpetal; it was first brought to the
The inheritance of a seedcoat pattern having white micropyle stripe (WMS) on a colored background was studied in two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions from Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical—G12606 and G07262. The WMS character from G12606 was backcrossed into the recurrent parent 5-593, which has black seedcoats. Test crosses of the derived WMS stocks (BC1 and BC2) with genetic tester stocks stp (stippled seedcoat) BC2 5-593 and stphbw (flowers with half banner petal white) BC3 5-593, respectively, demonstrated in F1 and F2 progenies that WMS is controlled by an allele at the Stp locus. The gene symbol stpmic is proposed for the allele expressing the WMS character. The dominance order at the Stp locus is Stp > stpmic > stphbw > stp. Although stp and stphbw each produce a different color pattern on flowers, stpmic does not produce patterned flowers. A selection from accession G07262 with a long, white micropyle stripe was crossed with 5-593 to derive a stock named F3stpmic long micropyle stripe, which was then crossed to the genetic tester stock t z virgarcus BC2 5-593 to produce F1 and F2. Expression of the long micropyle stripe was controlled by the interaction of t and stpmic in the genotype t Z stpmic. The triple recessive interaction from genotype t z stpmic was also observed.
The inheritance of intensified anthocyanin expression (IAE) in a syndrome of plant organs of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. A selection from accession line G07262, having white flowers with blue veins on the wing petals and a long, white micropyle stripe on black seedcoats, was used as the source of IAE syndrome. G07262 was crossed with three genetic tester stocks based on Florida dry bean line 5-593, which has the flower and seedcoat genotype T P [C r] Z J G B V Rk. The tester stocks were 5-593 (black seed and bishops violet flowers), t z bip bipunctata BC1 5-593 (a partly colored seedcoat), and v BC2 5-593 (mineral brown seedcoat and white flowers). Analysis of the F1 and F2 data from the test cross G07262 × t z bip bipunctata BC1 5-593 demonstrated that 1) G07262 has genotype t pmicV; 2) genotype t/t prevents expression of IAE syndrome by a dominant gene (Prpi-2) carried cryptically by G07262, i.e., T/-is required for expression of the gene; and 3) Prpi-2 may (preliminary data) express blue veins on white flowers with t V. From the cross with v BC2 5-593, an F4 selection for white flowers with red banner back and mineral brown seedcoats (due to v) was made. When the F4 selection was crossed with 5-593, analysis of the F2 progeny demonstrated that G07262 carries a dominant gene for IAE syndrome, which expresses with V/- but not with v/v. From the test cross 5-593 × G07262, a series of additional cycles of selection and test crosses (including the dark red kidney tester cub v rkd BC1 5-593) were made, and two new two-colored seedcoat patterns were developed that have never been previously reported. In a test cross with one of them, F2 data demonstrated that the dominant gene for IAE syndrome from G07262 is independent of the C locus, and the gene symbol Prpi-2 is proposed for this IAE syndrome gene to distinguish it from the previously reported IAE syndrome gene [cuPrpi]. A gene symbol reconciliation was made for all previous work with inheritance of IAE syndrome and purple pod genes without the syndrome.
( Dracup and Kirby, 1996 ), and were of the marketable size of 40 to 55 cm in length while supporting a minimum of 20 to 30 fully opened flowers ( Mackay and Davis, 1998 ). A flower was considered fully open when the blue standard petal with yellow banner
temperatures to avoid freezing, lack of knowledge on adaptable species, and the cost of the equipment. Freezing has been shown to occur in tulip petals and bulbs at −1.7 and −3.7 °C, respectively ( Har-denburg et al., 1986 ). The presence of solute particles in