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Medium- to low-end athletic field managers often struggle with maintaining high-quality athletic fields because of high use rates and limited budgets to supply enough inputs. Athletic field turfgrass must survive frequent and damaging foot traffic

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School grounds and athletic fields are an integral part of many students’ lives. Consistent exercise is a fundamental integral component contributing to the health of children ( Boreham and Riddoch, 2001 ). Therefore, athletic fields (and school

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Common bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) and hybrid bermudagrass are the most common turfgrasses used on athletic fields in the transition zone [a zone extending through the central part of the United States in which the winters are too cool for

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Many athletic field managers use bermudagrass based on its quality characteristics and production of rhizomes and stolons that allow it to spread naturally and provide a superior playing surface when properly managed. Historically, bermudagrass was

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Athletic fields high in silt and clay are susceptible to compaction during periods of substantialrainfall combined with heavy use ( Benson and Daniel, 1990 ), typical of a fall or spring athletic season in the midwestern United States. The stresses

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Sand-based athletic fields hold several distinct advantages over native soil root zones. The consistent particle size, high porosity and infiltration rates, and resistance to compaction make sand-based systems one of the best growing mediums for

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pesticides on school grounds and athletic fields. In particular, some research has indicated that when children come into contact with pesticides on school grounds there is a potential for health risks associated with prolonged pesticide exposure ( Alarcon et

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Bermudagrass ( Cynodon spp.) is the most widely used turfgrass species for athletic fields and golf courses in the southern and transition zones of the United States ( Beard 1973 ). The species are preferred because of excellent traffic tolerance

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, private schools, and daycare centers ( State of Connecticut, 2005 ). A majority (77%) of Connecticut school grounds/athletic field managers (hereafter referred to as school grounds managers) have perceived a decrease in the quality of fields they manage

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the individual. The multidimensional theory of anxiety has been given much attention because of the highly investigated relationship between anxiety and athletic performance ( Krane and Williams, 1987 ). The athletes' performance decreases when anxiety

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