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Sarada Krishnan, Bahman Pirastah and Harrison Hughes

The evergreen Ceanothus velutinus and semi-evergreen C. fendleri are native Colorado, drought-tolerant shrubs. They are of interest for landscaping and rock gardens, but have poor seed germination as well as vary considerably in growth form and habit. Asexual propagation methods would be important for commercial development of these species. Basal hardwood cuttings of C. velutinus were rooted using four different concentrations of IBA. The highest concentration of IBA (0.8%) showed the highest rooting (14.8%), while the average number of roots per cutting was highest for 0.1%. Ceanothus fendleri shoot tips were cultured on MS medium with four BA (0.89, 4.4, 8.9 and 17.8 μM) and three 2ip concentrations (24.6, 49.0 and 73.6 μM). After nine weeks an average of six shoots were produced in treatments having 4.9 μM of BA. Lower concentrations of BA up to 9.8 μM were better than higher concentrations of BA or 2ip. There was a tendency for production of callus at the higher levels of 8A and all levels of 2ip.

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Randall H. Hagen and David A. Palzkill

The `Desert Museum' hybrid between the Blue, Foothills, and Mexican palo verdes has been well received by the public. However, it has remained unavailable due to difficulties in asexual propagation. Studies were conducted on effects of IBA cone. (0 to 10,000 ppm), cutting position along the stem, size of cutting, season, and temperature of the medium.

For `Desert Museum', basal cuttings of slightly hardened new stem growth rooted much better than apical cuttings. Best rooting for apical cuttings was 79% using IBA from 2,500-5,000 ppm. Basal cuttings averaged 95% rooting and showed no response to IBA. Rooting of cuttings taken in September declined to 10% for apical and 2170 for basal cuttings averaged over all IBA levels. Six other species or hybrids of Cercidium and Parkinsonia and five of Prosopis were also rooted.

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Randall H. Hagen and David A. Palzkill

The `Desert Museum' hybrid between the Blue, Foothills, and Mexican palo verdes has been well received by the public. However, it has remained unavailable due to difficulties in asexual propagation. Studies were conducted on effects of IBA cone. (0 to 10,000 ppm), cutting position along the stem, size of cutting, season, and temperature of the medium.

For `Desert Museum', basal cuttings of slightly hardened new stem growth rooted much better than apical cuttings. Best rooting for apical cuttings was 79% using IBA from 2,500-5,000 ppm. Basal cuttings averaged 95% rooting and showed no response to IBA. Rooting of cuttings taken in September declined to 10% for apical and 2170 for basal cuttings averaged over all IBA levels. Six other species or hybrids of Cercidium and Parkinsonia and five of Prosopis were also rooted.

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Sarada Krishnan, Kurt Shultz and Harrison Hughes

In recent years there has become an increased demand for native, drought-tolerant species for private landscaping and revegetation of disturbed sites; especially in the Rocky Mountains and high plains states. Sheperdia canadensis and S. rotundifolia, native to much of this area, have already increased in popularity due to their drought tolerance and general hardiness. Micropropagation and rooting of cuttings have been investigated for these two species. S. canadensis hardwood stem cuttings were successfully rooted with 0.8% IBA at 46.5% as compared to less than 5% from previous research. S. rotundifolia produced a greater number of axillary shoots on WPM as compared to MS medium and at a moderate concentration of BA.

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Thomas E. Marler

conservation and restoration and 2) that large stem cuttings may be further considered for tree restoration projects only if more research identifies constraints to improved success rates. Asexual propagation of healthy Cycas plants is routinely accomplished

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Carlos Alberto Lecona-Guzmán, Sheila Reyes-Zambrano, Felipe Alonso Barredo-Pool, Miguel Abud-Archila, Joaquín Adolfo Montes-Molina, Reiner Rincón-Rosales and Federico Antonio Gutierrez-Miceli

americana is of economic importance because it is used for the production of an alcoholic beverage called “comiteco.” All available plants for the production of this liqueur come from vegetative propagation by suckers. To ensure the availability of adult

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Manjot Kaur Sidhu, Roberto G. Lopez, Sushila Chaudhari and Debalina Saha

contact with irrigation or rainwater ( Svenson, 1997 ). A single gemma can give rise to one or two clonal plants after contact with moist soil or media ( Saha et al., 2020 ). Fragmentation is another method of asexual propagation in common liverwort

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Wei-Ling Guo, Yao-Chien Alex Chang and Chien-Yuan Kao

paranaense is a tropical terrestrial species with thick pseudobulbs and racemes that rise from the developing shoot. In its natural propagation, C. paranaense is mainly through sexual (i.e., gene recombination) pollinated seed germination. Culture media

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Neil O. Anderson and Peter D. Ascher

It should be possible to maintain horticultural clones unchanged forever through asexual generations, as commercial propagators and clonal repositories maintain clonal integrity, disease-free stock plants, or remove mutations. However, unintentional selection for nonhorticultural traits could still be occurring. Accumulations of such traits would be due to the operation of Muller's ratchet and include fertility losses, increases in virus titer, and stunted growth habit. In chrysanthemums, Dendranthema grandiflora. clones separated from sexual cycles for generations become increasingly sterile. Seed set across years, using coefficients of crossability (FCC/MCC), was examined for garden clones (forced through sexual cycles annually) and greenhouse clones (asexual cycles only). Garden clones 40 years old (54-101-11) had only depressed levels of fertility. In other cases (77-AM 3-17), the ratchet was reversed >1 sexual cycle. Greenhouse clones were often completely sterile since their propagation is primarily asexual.

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Richard Durham

Computer-aided instruction is becoming ever-more popular in higher education. The visual nature of horticultural instruction makes it particularly amenable to teaching with computer-based graphic and hypertext formats. The Texas Tech Horticulture Faculty is interested in developing multimedia materials for instruction. Thus far, attention has been directed mainly at courses in introductory horticulture and plant propagation. For the plant propagation course, one activity is the construction of a hypertext glossary in the area of asexual propagation. Topics included in the glossary include propagation by cutting, layering, budding, grafting, and micropropagation. Multiple-choice exams are also available in the module so that students can assess their understanding of the subject matter presented. The glossary is not meant to replace lecture attendance, rather students will be encouraged to access the material outside of class to supplement lecture material. The student is presented a narrative with hot-text links that when activated, pull up additional information with a combination of text and graphics. Alternatively, students can access the same information from a hierarchical topic menu. Plant propagation instructors may also benefit from the glossary's ready supply of visuals that can be down-loaded and used in a traditional classroom format.