mandarin orange ( Tietel et al., 2011 ). These authors point out that there is a lack of published consumer studies to explain specific parameters such as volatiles and aroma for mandarins, and there are even fewer studies for satsuma. Second, compounds
John C. Beaulieu, Maureen A. Tully, Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm, and Javier M. Obando-Ulloa
Fritz K. Bangerth, Jun Song, and Josef Streif
Aroma volatiles are an important attribute of flavor in almost all tree fruit. Their significance was recognized by fruit physiologists quite early ( Power and Chestnut, 1920 ), but wholesale and retail personal and even horticulturists have only
Yan Li, Hongyan Qi, Yazhong Jin, Xiaobin Tian, Linlin Sui, and Yan Qiu
, 2001 ). In general, FAs are considered to be major precursors of aroma volatiles in melon [ Cucumis melo ( Flores et al., 2002 )]. Straight-chain esters are produced from free FA such as LA, LeA, and OA by the generation of short-chain alcohols and
Elizabeth A. Baldwin, John W. Scott, and Jinhe Bai
acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, individual sugars, individual acids, and 29 aroma volatiles over multiple seasons and years to better determine their importance under diverse environmental conditions; second, to determine chemical differences between two
Libin Wang, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Zhifang Yu, and Jinhe Bai
salicylate ( Buttery, 1993 ). However, volatile compounds with negative odor units also may contribute to tomato aroma as background notes ( Baldwin et al., 2000 ). Therefore, aroma models, based on concentrations and odor thresholds of individual volatiles
Liangli Yu, Denys J. Charles, Jules Janick, and James E. Simon
The aroma volatiles of ripe fresh `GoldRush' and `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh) were examined using dynamic headspace to capture the volatiles and gas chromatography (GC)–GC–mass spectroscopy (MS) analysis for compound identification. A total of 21 aroma volatiles were identified, with 16 being common to both cultivars: toluene, butyl acetate, hexyl formate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, xylene, butyl propionate, pentyl acetate, s-butyl butanoate, hexyl acetate, iso-butyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl propionate, hexyl butanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl hexanoate, a-farnesene, and ethyl phthalate. Three volatiles [dipropyl disulfide, pentyl 2-methylpropionate, and 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione] were unique to `Golden Delicious'; two compounds (nonanal and nerolidol) were unique to `GoldRush'. Most identified compounds were esters. Hexyl acetate (18.39%) was the major volatile in `Golden Delicious', while butyl acetate (13.40%) was the highest in `GoldRush'.
Charles F. Forney
Volatile compounds are responsible for the aroma and contribute to the flavor of fresh strawberries (Fragari×anannassa), red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), and blueberries (Vaccinium sp.). Strawberry aroma is composed predominately of esters, although alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes are also present in smaller quantities. The aroma of raspberries is composed of a mixture of ketones and terpenes. In highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), aroma is dominated by aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, terpenes and long chain alcohols, while in lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), aroma is predominated by esters and alcohols. The composition and concentration of these aroma compounds are affected by cultivar, fruit maturity, and storage conditions. Volatile composition varies significantly both quantitatively and qualitatively among different cultivars of small fruit. As fruit ripen, the concentration of aroma volatiles rapidly increases closely following pigment formation. In storage, volatile concentrations continue to increase but composition depends on temperature and atmosphere composition. Many opportunities exist to improve the aroma volatile composition and the resulting flavor of small fruit reaching the consumer.
Zimian Niu*, Dapeng Zhang, Hongyu Zhao, and Curt Rom
The volatile aromas from the fruits of `Naganofuji No.2' apple (Malus domestica Mill.) were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after different temperature conditions. The fruits from CA storage were sealed in glass and the volatiles in the headspace were determined. Eleven compounds of four chemical classes from active carbon absorbed samples were measured and three of them—tormic acid pentyl ester, butanoic acid-1-methyl ethylester and 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone, were identified at 20 °C, but not at °C. Under 20 °C condition, the contents of three volatiles increased from 1 hour and reached to their peaks at the 4th to 7th hour. The content of ethylene reached its peak at 4 hours and changed synchronically with the other volatiles during the experiment. The content of ethylene was significantly positively correlated with the contents of volatile aromas (r = 0.96-0.98, P ≤ 0.01). Under °C condition, the content of ethylene was significant lower than that of at 20°C and there was no ethylene peak produced during experiment. When the fruits were treated with ethephon (0.1 mg·L-1) at 5°C, the content of ethylene increased greatly. The highest level of ethylene was found at 4 to 7 hours and the peaks of volatiles also appeared at 7 hours or 10 hours after the treatment. It was suggested that the production of ethylene in fruits could be thought as an indicator of some volatile aromas.
Artur Miszczak, Charles F. Forney, and Robert K. Prange
`Kent' strawberries were harvested at red, pink, and white stages of development, and stored at 15C in the light. Fruit were sampled over a 10-day period and evaluated for volatile production and surface color. Volatile production by red and pink fruit peaked after 4 days of storage. Maximum volatile production by red fruit was 8- and 25-fold greater than maximum production by pink and white fruit, respectively. Aroma volatiles were not detected in the headspace over white berries until 4 days following harvest after which volatile production increased through the tenth day of storage. Changes in the surface color of white berries during postharvest ripening coincided with the production of volatiles. In another experiment, red, pink, and white `Kent' strawberries were stored for 3 days at 10 or 20C in the dark or light. Fruit were then evaluated for volatile production, weight loss, anthocyanin content, and surface color changes. White berries produced volatile esters after 3 days of storage at 20C in the light. Both light and temperature influenced the relative production of the volatiles produced by pink fruit. Fresh weight loss, color change, and anthocyanin content were temperature and light dependent.
Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan
`Annapolis', `Cavendish', `Honeoye', `Kent', and `Micmac' strawberry fruit (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) were harvested underripe (75% to 90% red) or fully ripe. Fruit were stored at 0C for 5 days followed by 2 days at 15C. Volatiles were trapped onto Tenax-GR from the headspace over fruit before and after storage and analyzed using GC-MS. Volatile esters identified in headspace included methyl and ethyl butanoate, methyl and ethyl hexanoate, methyl and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and methyl 2-methylbutanoate. Headspace concentrations of volatile esters over freshly harvested strawberries averaged 1.3 and 6.8 μmol·m–3 for underripe and ripe fruit, respectively. After 7 days of storage, volatile concentrations increased in both underripe and ripe fruit to 6.3 and 12.2 μmol·m–3, respectively. There were quantitative and qualitative differences between cultivars. Total volatile concentrations were 16.0, 8.1, 5.7, 2.4, and 0.9 μmol·m–3 in the headspace over `Annapolis', `Kent', `Micmac', `Cavendish', and `Honeoye', respectively. `Annapolis' had the highest concentrations of methyl and ethyl butanoate, while `Micmac' had the highest concentrations of methyl and ethyl hexanoate. Volatile concentrations at harvest increased 5.7, 1.9, 1.7, 1.4, and 1.3 times during storage in `Kent', `Annapolis', `Micmac', `Cavendish', and `Honeoye', respectively. Results indicate that strawberry fruit continue to produce aroma volatiles after harvest.