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S. Nemec

Three sites (A-C) were prepared for citrus groves in Florida from 1985 to 1986. Nine soil amendments applied at either one or two rates were deep-tilled 3.9 to 4.9 ft (1.2 to 1.5 m) deep and 4.9 ft (1.5 m) wide in the row before planting. Maximum treatment rates were limestone 50,000 at lb/acre (56 000 kg·ha−1), phosphoclay at 80,000 lb/acre (89 600 kg·ha−1), humate at 77,612 lb/acre (86 912 kg·ha−1), shrimp waste at 73,052 lb/acre (81 805 kg·ha−1), peat at 250,000 lb/acre (280 000 kg·ha−1), bentonite clay at 73,051 lb/acre (81 805 kg·ha−1), mined gypsum at 2000 lb/acre (2240 kg·ha−1), calcium humate at 2000 lb/acre (2240 kg·ha−1), and phosphogypsum at 10,000 lb/acre (11 200 kg·ha−1). Deep-tilled controls and a no-till control were established at sites A and B and a deep-tilled control at site C. A fourth grove (site D) was planted in 1970 and included the treatments surface tillage (ST), deep tillage (DT), and DT plus lime (DTL) at 45,407 lb/acre (50,848 kg·ha−1). Mycorrhizal fungus infection was found in roots in 1987 at sites A and B and in 1989 in site C. Fungus infection ranged from 6% (no-till control) to 64% at site A, 64% to 81% at site B, and 15% to 47% at site C. At all sites, amendments did not increase percentage infection and vesicle and hyphae ratings significantly over the deep-tilled control. At site A, percentage infection in the limestone treatment was the highest (64%) and was significantly higher than infection in phosphogypsum, peat, and the no-till control treatments. No treatment had a suppressive effect on infection. Mycorrhizal infection in roots was high (94% to 95%) at site D but did not differ significantly between treatments.

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Maria Florencia Babuin, Mariela Echeverria, Ana Bernardina Menendez, and Santiago Javier Maiale

interval of 48 h. This treatment was performed to ensure that no AM fungus was present in the inoculum. The absence of mycorrhizal colonization in control pecan plants was checked by trypan blue staining and subsequent observation with an optical microscope

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Cinta Calvet, Amelia Camprubi, Ana Pérez-Hernández, and Paulo Emilio Lovato

Bianciotto, V. Genre, A. Jargeat, P. Lumini, E. Bécard, G. Bonfante, P. 2004 Vertical transmission of endobacteria in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita through generation of vegetative spores Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 3600 3608

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Nathan J. Herrick and Raymond A. Cloyd

). However, there are unsubstantiated allegations made by a manufacturer that certain plant-growing media containing B. pumilus and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices , negatively affect the survival of western flower thrips pupae and

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Tomohiro Okada and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

weeks after AMF inoculation. None = none–AMF-inoculated; AMF+ = Glomus sp. R10. Bars represent se s (n = 10). *significantly different between non-AMF and AMF plants ( t test, P ≤ 0.05); ns = non-significant. AMF = arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

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Abu Shamim Mohammad Nahiyan and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

conidial suspension onto the soil. Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization level. Ten weeks after AMF inoculation and 8 weeks after Foa inoculation, roots of asparagus were preserved with 70% ethanol and stained according to Phillips and

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Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Jungmin Lee

treatments were also inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (+AMF), Rhizophagus irregularis ). Symbols represent the mean of ( A , B ) 40 (41 d) and 24 (75 d) replicates and ( C , D ) five replicates and error bars represent the least

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Carolyn F. Scagel and Jungmin Lee

influence of AMF on production of phenolics in basil is related to AMF-mediated effects on whole plant nutrient status. Materials and Methods Plant materials and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum. Four basil cultivars (Cinnamon, Siam Queen, Sweet Dani

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D.D. Douds Jr., G. Bécard, P.E. Pfeffer, L.W. Doner, T.J. Dymant, and W.M. Kayser

A vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in a peat-based medium significantly increased survival, callus development, and rooting percentage of Sciadopitys verticillata cuttings over noninoculated cuttings. The presence of a nurse host plant for the mycorrhizal fungi to colonize in the absence of S. verticillata roots decreased survival and rooting percentage, but not callus development, relative to the fungus without the nurse host. Among plants that did produce roots, however, there were no significant differences among treatments for root number, weight, or length per cutting.

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Yun-Jeong Lee*, Sang-Min Lee, and Seung-Hwan Kim

The elemental distribution (P, Ca, K, Mg) within inter- and intracellular structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) cucumber root was determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Chinesische Schlange) was grown as a test plant using compartmentalized pots with separate zones for hyphal growth and was inoculated or not with the AM fungus, Glomus mosseae (BEG 107). EDAX studies revealed that P in intercellular structures including fungal cells in cucumber root colonized with AM was mainly localized in both polyphosphate granules in arbuscular vacuole and arbuscular cytoplasm. Ca in AM root was mostly localized in cortex cell wall, interfacial apoplast between root and fungus, arbuscular cytoplasm and poly phosphate granules. Mg was distributed homogenously in most cell compartments within AM root while K was localized mainly in cell wall of stele. Higher contents of Ca and Mg were detected in polyphosphate granules whereas lower content of K was detectable. These results indicate that polyphosphate granules could play a role as a complex forming site with metal cations especially with divalent cations like Ca and Mg. In addition, it could give a possibility of regulation function of polyphosphate granules on element transfer from fungus to host plant root. Furthermore, the distribution of element within cortex cytoplasm, interfacial apoplast between plant root and fungus and arbuscular cytoplasm might give a clue on the element transfer mechanism between symbionts.