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William Reichert, Harna Patel, Christopher Mazzei, Chung-Heon Park, H. Rodolfo Juliani, and James E. Simon

antioxidants and other compounds that were previously shown to exhibit in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (Shen et al., 2010). Origin The Rutgers Oregano Breeding Project originally began in 2002 with the procurement of commercially available oregano

Open access

Satoru Motoki, Tianli Tang, Takumi Taguchi, Ayaka Kato, Hiromi Ikeura, and Tomoo Maeda

). Rutin has anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive effects in animal experiments ( Hellerstein et al., 1951 ; Selloum et al., 2003 ), and biological effects such as suppression of capillary weakness in humans ( Griffith et al., 1944 ). Tsushida et al

Open access

Yan Bai, Wen Chen, Shou-Zan Liu, Lin-Yu Xu, Zhe Li, and Bin Liu

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum is a precious plant in China (Wang et al., 2018a), It is known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activities ( Chen et al., 2017 ; Wang et al., 2017 ; Zhu et al., 2020 ) in Chinese herbology. Wu et al

Free access

Weiguang Yi and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

estimates ≈38% of adults use complementary and alternative medical treatments. Scientific evidence increasingly supports the potential health benefits of herbs with plant extracts displaying antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic, and

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Luping Qu and Mark P. Widrlechner

become an economically important medicinal herb through its anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial activities ( Brindley et al., 2009 ; Chiu et al., 2004 ; Kageygama et al., 2000 ; Psotová et al., 2003 ; Zhang et al., 2007 ). With the

Free access

Yanrong Lv, Ibrahim I. Tahir, and Marie E. Olsson

activity, these compounds have also been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity, and inhibit initiation, promotion, and metastasis of cancer ( Shanmugam et al., 2013 ). UA and its derivatives have also raised much interest for the potential to act as

Free access

Clark Wilson, G.K. Jayaprakasha, and Bhimanagouda Patil

Open column chromatography is an effective and common technique for the separation and purification of chemical constituents. Limonoids are found in significant quantities in citrus fruits. Citrus limonoids have documented anti-cancer activity in several types of cancer, such as breast, colon, skin, and neuroblastoma in animal models and in vitro cell culture studies. Furthermore, limonoids have shown anti-inflammatory properties and inhibitory effects on bone resorption. In addition to many potential health benefits, limonoids have also shown antifungal and insect anti-feedant properties. To meet the large demand of limonoids for bioactivity studies, defatted grapefruit seeds were extracted using acetone and concentrated under vacuum. The dried extract was loaded onto a silica gel column and eluted with mixtures of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate with increasing polarity to obtain three compounds. The purity of the compounds (1–3) have been analyzed by HPLC and the structures have been identified by using NMR spectra and mass spectra as nomilin, limonin, and deacetylnomilin, in respective order of elution. The results will be presented in greater detail on the poster. This project is based upon work supported by the USDA-CSREES under Agreement USDA IFAFS #2001 52102 02294 and USDA #2005-34402-14401 “Designing Foods for Health” through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center.

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Jairam Vanamala*, Lavanya Reddivari, Kil Sun Yoo, Leonard M. Pike, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil

Orange juice is an important source of bioactive compounds like flavonoids and the main human dietary source of antioxidant compounds in developed countries. Citrus flavonoids possess chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the ability to lower cholesterol and modulate the immune function. In this study, we examined flavonoid content of “concentrated” (n = 12) and “Not-From Concentrate (NFC)” (n = 14) commercial orange juices by an HPLC method to investigate the brand to brand differences and differences within the brand (various types). Correlation between flavanonoid content (mg) and price per unit volume was also evaluated. Significant (P = 0.05) differences among the brands were observed in the flavanoid content of both NFC and concentrated orange juices. Total flavonoid content was significantly higher in concentrated juices compared to the NFC juices. However, higher content of didymin was found in NFC juices. Within the brand, no significant differences in the total flavonoid content were observed in juice types containing antioxidant vitamins compared to the juice types devoid of these vitamins. Price did not correlate with the total flavonoid content for either NFC (r = 0.057) or concentrated (r = -0.49) orange juices. Hesperidin was the major flavonoid and followed by narirutin and didymin. Their content (mg/100 mL) in concentrated and NFC juices ranged between 18-55 (Hesperidin); 3-8 (narirutin); and 1-2.5 (didymin), respectively. This study provides valuable information on flavonoid composition of orange juices commonly available in the US market.

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Ana V. de Souza, José E.B.P. Pinto, Suzan K.V. Bertolucci, Ricardo M. Corrêa, Larissa C. do B. Costa, and William E. Dyer

Lychnophora pinaster, known as arnica, is a medicinal plant of the Cerrado ecosystem in Brazil. It is widely used in the form of alcoholic extract for its anti-inflammatory and anesthetic and healing effects on sprains, bruises, and inflammation. Owing to the great difficulty of propagation, it is listed by the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis in the category of plants vulnerable to extinction. Micropropagation offers a solution to this problem by allowing the preservation and expansion of germplasm. The objective of this research was to establish a protocol for in vitro propagation of arnica. The best medium for germination of arnica embryos and plantlet growth was a quarter strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium (MS/4) containing 0.75% (w/v) sucrose. For shoot induction, the best results were obtained on MS/4 with 2.76 μm of benzylaminopurine. Maximum shoot elongation before rooting occurred in the presence of 8.67 μm of gibberellic acid for 19 d. Microshoots were successfully rooted in the presence of 10.7 μm of naphthalene acetic acid for 15 d. After rooted plantlets were acclimatized in a greenhouse for 20 d, the survival rate was 100% when planted in a soil from the area of occurrence of the species, whereas 0% survived when planted in Plantmax.

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Usha R. Palaniswamy

Vegetarianism dates back to a time before recorded history and, as many anthropologists believe, most early humans ate primarily plant foods, being more gatherers than hunters. Human diets may be adopted for a variety of reasons, including political, esthetic, moral, environmental and economic concerns, religious beliefs, and a desire to consume a more healthy diet. A major factor influencing the vegetarianism movement in the present time is primarily associated with better health. Epidemiologic data support the association between high intake of vegetables and fruit and low risk of chronic diseases and provide evidence to the profound and long-term health benefits of a primarily vegetarian diet. Vegetables and fruit are rich sources of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber as well as biologically active nonnutrient compounds that have a complementary and often multiple mechanisms of actions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and hypolipidemic properties, and mechanisms that stimulate the human immune system. Because of the critical link established between diet and health, consumers have begun to view food as a means of self-care for health promotion and disease prevention. Functional foods are targeted to address specific health concerns, such as high cholesterol or high blood sugar levels, to obtain a desired health benefit. Functional properties identified in a number of plant species have led to a modern day renaissance for the vegetarian movement.