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Nobuyuki Fukuoka, Takamoto Suzuki, Keisuke Minamide, and Tatsuro Hamada

content of anthocyanins in fruit skin and on fruit color ( Koyama and Goto-Yamamoto, 2008 ; Wang et al., 2000 ). In most fruits, light is a prerequisite for anthocyanin synthesis ( Mancinelli, 1983 ) and shading during fruit development results in

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Phil Sheridan, Winnie W. Ho, Yann Rodenas, and Donald G. Ruch

; Papiorek et al., 2016 ). This diversity in color and pattern is often achieved through anthocyanins, a secondary metabolite of flavonoid biosynthesis that generates a range of reds, purples, and blues ( Koes et al., 2005 ; Tanaka et al., 2008

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Ying Qu, Xue Bai, Yajun Zhu, Rui Qi, Geng Tian, Yang Wang, Yonghua Li, and Kaiming Zhang

As a major class of pigments in plant tissues, anthocyanins are considered stress indicators because their biosynthesis can be induced by many environmental factors, in which low temperature (LT) is a nonignorable inducer ( Lo Piero, 2015 ; Zhang

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Xia Chun-hua and Chen Jian-hua

., 1980 ). Anthocyanins, as flavonoid pigments that contribute red, purple, and blue coloration to plants, are one of the key factors determining the color of the spathe of Anthurium . Research shows that PAL activity is positively correlated with

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Chikako Honda, Hideo Bessho, Mari Murai, Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Kazuyuki Abe, Masato Wada, Yuki Moriya-Tanaka, Hiroko Hayama, and Miho Tatsuki

Red coloration in apple fruit skin is the result of the accumulation of anthocyanin, which is classified as a flavonoid compound. The regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in apple fruit skin is of interest because the red coloration of apples is an

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Ikuo Kataoka and Kenji Beppu

The contribution of the UV light component on the skin coloration was determined in `Hakuho' peach. Detached fruit partially covered with a UV-proof polyvinylchloride (PVC) film and a polyethylene film were exposed to sunlight for 4 days. Red coloration of the fruit and anthocyanin content in the skin were considerably reduced with the UV-proof PVC film. Irradiation with a UV fluorescent lamp at 3.58 W·m-2 markedly enhanced the red color development, while white fluorescent light at 120 μmol·m-2·s-1 did not affect the coloration. UV irradiation also increased the anthocyanin content in the cultured skin discs with increasing irradiance up to above 7.3 W·m-2. These results suggest that the UV component contributes significantly to the enhancement of the fruit coloration by sunlight exposure.

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Hongmei Ma, Margaret Pooler, and Robert Griesbach

Anthocyanin biosynthesis was first characterized in Zea mays and was demonstrated to be predominantly regulated at the transcription level by two families of regulatory factors, R-like MYC (R, B, Lc, Sn) and R2R3-MYB (C1/Pl) proteins ( Brevitz

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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle, and David S. Gardner

Anthocyanins have become sought-after natural products due to potential for medicinal and industrial uses. These metabolites have a number of health-promoting properties; increasing demand for nutraceuticals, fruits, and vegetables containing

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Peter J. Mes, Peter Boches, James R. Myers, and Robert Durst

purplish brown” color. The pigments in most fruit and vegetables with purple color are anthocyanins, but to our knowledge, none of the so-called purple or black tomatoes contain substantial quantities of anthocyanins. The cultivated tomato does express

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel, and Robert J. Griesbach

Capsicum annuum (pepper) is cultivated as both an ornamental and a vegetable. Anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves, flowers, and fruit imparts violet to black color and enhances both ornamental and culinary appeal. Anthocyanins are the end