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content of anthocyanins in fruit skin and on fruit color ( Koyama and Goto-Yamamoto, 2008 ; Wang et al., 2000 ). In most fruits, light is a prerequisite for anthocyanin synthesis ( Mancinelli, 1983 ) and shading during fruit development results in

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; Papiorek et al., 2016 ). This diversity in color and pattern is often achieved through anthocyanins, a secondary metabolite of flavonoid biosynthesis that generates a range of reds, purples, and blues ( Koes et al., 2005 ; Tanaka et al., 2008

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Abstract

Two anthocyanins from Anthurium amnicola (Dressler) were identified as cyanidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside. HPLC chromatograms from spathe and spadix were similar. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside occurred in much larger amounts than peonidin 3-rutinoside.

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As a major class of pigments in plant tissues, anthocyanins are considered stress indicators because their biosynthesis can be induced by many environmental factors, in which low temperature (LT) is a nonignorable inducer ( Lo Piero, 2015 ; Zhang

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Anthocyanins are one of the pigments contributing to fruit color ( Li et al. 2019a ). In plants, anthocyanins attract pollinators and seed dispersers and enhance plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress ( Krüger et al. 2021 ; Treutter 2005

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., 1980 ). Anthocyanins, as flavonoid pigments that contribute red, purple, and blue coloration to plants, are one of the key factors determining the color of the spathe of Anthurium . Research shows that PAL activity is positively correlated with

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Red coloration in apple fruit skin is the result of the accumulation of anthocyanin, which is classified as a flavonoid compound. The regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in apple fruit skin is of interest because the red coloration of apples is an

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promotes leaf expansion and growth ( Legendre and van Iersel 2021 ; Park and Runkle 2017 ; Son and Oh 2013 ), whereas ultraviolet-A (UVA; 315–400 nm) and blue (B; 400–499 nm) light promote the synthesis of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins ( Li

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The contribution of the UV light component on the skin coloration was determined in `Hakuho' peach. Detached fruit partially covered with a UV-proof polyvinylchloride (PVC) film and a polyethylene film were exposed to sunlight for 4 days. Red coloration of the fruit and anthocyanin content in the skin were considerably reduced with the UV-proof PVC film. Irradiation with a UV fluorescent lamp at 3.58 W·m-2 markedly enhanced the red color development, while white fluorescent light at 120 μmol·m-2·s-1 did not affect the coloration. UV irradiation also increased the anthocyanin content in the cultured skin discs with increasing irradiance up to above 7.3 W·m-2. These results suggest that the UV component contributes significantly to the enhancement of the fruit coloration by sunlight exposure.

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Anthocyanin biosynthesis was first characterized in Zea mays and was demonstrated to be predominantly regulated at the transcription level by two families of regulatory factors, R-like MYC (R, B, Lc, Sn) and R2R3-MYB (C1/Pl) proteins ( Brevitz

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