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Kimberly A. Moore, Amy L. Shober, Gitta S. Hasing, Christine L. Wiese, Geoffrey C. Denny, and Gary W. Knox

of 100 ppm twice per week for 1 week, then at an N rate of 200 ppm twice weekly until transplanting. Table 1. Common name, scientific name, cultivar, and source of cool and warm-season annual plant materials used to evaluate aesthetic quality response

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Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Gitta S. Hasing, Christine Wiese, Geoffrey C. Denny, and Gary W. Knox

fertilizer published by the manufacturer) with a 20N–0P–0K–23S polymer-coated ammonium sulfate fertilizer (Honeywell nylon, Seffner, FL) at 0, 2, 4, 6, or 12 lb/1000 ft 2 per year. Vines and groundcovers were rated visually for aesthetic quality every 6

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, Alexander G. Litvin, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

aesthetic quality, and poorer grower-perceived durability at the end of crop production when compared with petroleum-based plastic containers ( Flax et al., 2017 ). Algal growth on surfaces and variation in container strength of other types of biocontainers

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S.M. Scheiber and Richard C. Beeson, Jr

based on plant water consumption. Without compromising growth or aesthetic quality, tensiometer-regulated systems reduced irrigation volumes applied to ‘Santorini’ carnations ( Dianthus caryophyllus ), cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ), and ‘Kardinal’ roses

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Sloane M. Scheiber and Richard C. Beeson

Previous research indicated that bedding plants can be maintained in landscape soils allowed to dry to substantially less than field capacity before irrigation; however, canopy size and aesthetic quality were compromised. Continuing this research, Solenostemon scutellarioides (coleus) were grown in drainage lysimeters in an open-sided clear polyethylene-covered shelter to assess growth characteristics and landscape quality when irrigated at various managed allowable deficits. Using tensiometers, plants were irrigated back to field capacity when 30%, 40%, or 50% of plant available water within a soil was depleted. Deficits were evaluated against a control treatment of 1.25 cm daily irrigation. Additional plants were grown in a companion open field plot. Growth indices, biomass, irrigation volumes, and landscape quality ratings were recorded. No differences in final height, growth index, shoot or root dry weights, total biomass, or shoot-to-root ratios were found among treatments for either lysimeter or companion field plots. Landscape quality was comparable among treatments. However, total irrigation volume applied was significantly greater for the control treatments than deficit irrigation treatments. On average, irrigation volumes were 4.75-fold greater for daily irrigation in comparison to other treatments.

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Johnny Carter, Bharat P. Singh, and Wayne Whitehead

Greenhouse studies conducted in 1990 and 1991 evaluated the influence of dikegulac and benzyladenine on frond initiation and vegetative growth of Boston fern [Nephrolepsis exaltata (L.) Schott `Compacta']. Four weeks after transplanting, fern liners were sprayed with aqueous solutions of dikegulac (0, 250, 500, or 750 mg·L–1) or benzyladenine (BA; 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·L–1). The effect of dikegulac and BA on the number of shoots, frond length, leaf area, and dry weight was measured. Dikegulac stimulated shoot initiation and increased leaf area and dry weight without affecting frond length. BA reduced frond length and had no effect on shoot initiation and dry weight. This study suggests dikegulac has potential to improve the appearance and aesthetic quality of Boston fern. Chemical names used: 2,3:4,6-bis-0-(1-methylethylidene)-α-l-Xylo-2 hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (benzyladenine).

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Alice Le Duc, Linda R. Parsons, and John C. Pair

Three cultivars of boxwood, `Winter Gem' (Buxus microphylla Sieb. & Zucc.), `Green Velvet', and `Green Mountain' [B. sinica (Rehd. & Wils.) Cheng var. insularis (Nakai) M. Cheng × B. sempervirens L. `Suffruticosa' L.], were planted in 12 different landscape exposures (N, ENE, NNE, E, SSE, ESE, S, WSW, SSW, W, NNW, WNW) at Manhattan and Wichita, Kans., representing U.S. Dept. of Agriculture hardiness zones 5 and 6, respectively. In Kansas, winter stress is often the greatest threat to plant survival, and Winter 1995-96 was one of great extremes. Official lows of -25 °C for Manhattan and -23 °C for Wichita were recorded, along with sharp 24-hour temperature drops of 31-32 °C in January and March. Differences in cultivar performance were noted between sites. Better winter quality was exhibited by `Green Velvet' and `Green Mountain', although significant bronzing occurred on the former in Manhattan. Locations on N, ENE, NNE, NNW, and WNW exposures resulted in better plant quality of all cultivars, whereas plant performance was poorer at S and SE exposures. Differences in canopy temperatures of up to 15.7 °C were recorded, on the same cold winter day, between NNW and ESE. Recovery from winter dieback and growth during Summer 1996 varied with cultivar, site, and exposure. `Winter Gem' grew most in height, and `Green Velvet' grew most overall at Manhattan. Growth rates were dependent on exposure, with greater growth at NNE, E, SSW, and WNW. Performance of `Green Velvet' and `Green Mountain' indicated that they could be used in any exposure with conditions similar to those of the test sites.

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Alice Le Duc and John C. Pair

Five cultivars of boxwood (Buxus microphylla)—'Winter Gem', B. microphylla var. japonica `Green Beauty', `Green Velvet', `Green Mountain' and `Glencoe'—were planted in twelve different exposures at Manhattan and Wichita, Kan., representing USDA hardiness zones 5 and 6 respectively. The 1995–96 winter was one of great extremes. Lows of –25°C for Manhattan and -23°C for Wichita were recorded, along with sharp 24-hour temperature drops of 31–32°C in January and March. Differences in cultivar performance were noted between the sites. At the Wichita site best winter color was exhibited by `Green Velvet' and `Glencoe', whereas `Green Mountain' sustained some bronzing of foliage due to winter sun. At Manhattan only `Glencoe' in protected locations exhibited good winter color. All other surviving cultivars showed considerable bronzing. In addition, `Green Beauty' was severely damaged at Manhattan, sustaining bark splitting due to low temperatures, although most plants survived at Wichita. Shaded locations on north, northeast and northwest produced best plant quality of all cultivars; whereas, the poorest plant performance occurred on south and southeast exposures.

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Shangchun Hu, Gail Hansen, and Paul Monaghan

). Many urban ponds also have significant water quality and aesthetic issues that result from ineffective design and maintenance treatments. For example, design flaws such as lack of pretreatment areas and incorrect pond depth decrease environmental health

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S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, M. Paz, and K.A. Moore

rooting but decreased shoot growth ( Gilman et al., 1996 ). No differences in mortality rates or aesthetic quality were found between irrigation frequencies of Ceanothus griseus (Trelease) McMinn var. horizontalis ‘Santa Ana’, Rhamnus californica