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unknown signal(s) triggers an acidification process by roots. Three nutrient deficiencies known to cause plants to acidify substrate include: Fe ( Welkie and Miller, 1993 ), Zn ( Cakmak and Marschner, 1990 ), and P ( Schjorring, 1986 ; Hinsinger, 2001

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Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH rapidly (within 1–2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. Phosphorus (P) deficiency has been shown to cause plants to acidify

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acidify their rhizosphere ( Gogorcena et al., 2001 ; Hawkins et al., 2008 ; Lei et al., 2015 ; Santi and Schmidt, 2009 ; Suzko et al., 2018 ; Valentinuzzi et al., 2015 ). Previous research suggests that plants acidify their rhizosphere to create more

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; Krewer and Ruter, 2012 ). Ideally, a suitable compost for blueberry will contain manageable levels of soluble salts and K and will not increase soil pH above 5.5. Costello and Sullivan (2014) successfully acidified a wide range of composts by adding

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strategy comprises the coordinated action of three complementary processes functioning at the plasma membrane (PM) of root epidermal cells: a) rhizosphere acidification, b) iron reduction, and c) transmembrane iron transport ( Jeong and Conolly, 2009

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chemical N fertilizer to buffer soil acidification, improve microbial activity and functional diversity, provide nutrients, and maintain the sustainable productivity ( Hati et al., 2008 ; Shen et al., 2010 ; Zhao et al., 2012 ). The relatively low cost of

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Sodium bicarbonate type irrigation water is detrimental to the growth of Azalea indica `Formosa'. Alkaline irrigation water reduced both top and root growth of `Formosa' azalea. Leaf tissue sodium was significantly greater in azalea plant tissue irrigated with alkaline water. Concentrated sulfuric acid was used to acidify the alkaline water source. Acidification significantly reduced the uptake of sodium into the leaf tissue by 45%. Leaf tissue Ca and Mg levels were significantly greater from plants irrigated wtih deionized water. Azalea plants irrigated with acidified water produced significantly better quality plants. Leaf and root tissue samples were taken after 8 months.

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Acidification of < 1% of the effective root zone of a mature pecan tree (Carya illinoensis (Wanghenh.) C. Koch) significantly increased uptake of Zn into the tree and maintained elevated Zn in leaves for 9 years. Sulfuric acid and ZnSO4, applied in a shallow trench, lowered soil pH to a depth of 60 cm and increased volubility of Zn in the acid band. Large concentrations of CaSO4 were formed. Laboratory tests confirmed the movement and volubility of Zn in soils under conditions similar to those in the field. Tree roots did not grow into the acidified band, presumably due to high salinity, but proliferated extensively at the interface of the acidified band and calcareous soil.

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correcting high alkalinity irrigation water are to either neutralize to an end-point alkalinity (80% neutralization of bases is recommended), or to an end-point pH (pH 5.8 is recommended) by acidification with sulfuric, nitric, or phosphoric acid ( Baily

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presence of roots. The nature of the root substrate affects initial pH value and determines the degree of acidification during production. Tsai (2000) grew Oncidium Gower Ramsey in coconut husks, tree fern roots, sphagnum moss, or a mixture of these

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