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technologies demonstrated that scale barriers can be overcome by introducing purchase and rental options, by providing customized services ( Lu et al., 2016 ), and by providing smaller-scale producers with ready access. Table 6. Coefficient estimates and

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access to agricultural programming and to avoid marginalization. However, simply translating existing programming materials from English to Spanish will not be effective for creating a sense of belonging for most Hispanics. Indeed, to successfully engage

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; Minter and Bessin 2014 ; Perez et al. 2015 ). Low tunnels (LTs) can serve as an alternative or supplement to insecticides because they create a physical barrier between plants and pests. LTs typically consist of spunbond polypropylene row cover material

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The Southeastern Fresh Produce Food Safety Training Program has been training extension agents across the southeastern U.S. since 2000. This program has utilized a variety of methods including group case study to enhance learning and promote team work. Multistate trainings have fostered collaboration between states and institutions. One goal of the program was to produce a method for agents to provide training that was repeatable and easy to implement. As a result, two videos were produced for use in training field and packinghouse workers. These videos were an English language good agricultural practices (GAPs) video entitled Bridging the GAPs: From the Farm to the Table and a Spanish language hand-washing video entitled ¡Lave sus Manos: Por Los Niños! This program has been very effective, but has faced challenges due to language barriers. Many field and packinghouse crews were mixed in terms of language with some crew members speaking only English while others spoke only Spanish. As a result, Spanish speakers were unable to access the information in the good agricultural practices video while English speakers were unable to access information in the hand-washing video. The solution was to produce a bilingual training aid that included both sets of information and has been compiled into a DVD containing the footage of both of the original videos in both languages. For the Spanish version of the GAPs video and the English of the hand-washing video, the audio of the video's original language was left at a low sound level and the audio of the alternate language was added. These DVDs are currently being distributed to extension programs in all of the cooperating states with the aim of reaching growers who want to start a food safety plan.

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A new course, Topics in Home Horticulture, was developed at the Univ. of Missouri in Fall 1996. The course incorporated a mix of traditional lectures, hands-on laboratories, and technological teaching tools. Approximately 1/3 of the lectures were developed with computer presentation software; the remainder with slides or overhead transparencies. Class notes and some reading assignments were posted on the Internet. All students participated in a class e-mail discussion group. The course evaluation assessed students' use of and reactions to technological tools for the class. Students who used the Internet most frequently were more likely to agree that the class web pages enhanced learning. The greatest barrier to use of the Internet web pages was inconvenience of access. Students found the e-mail discussion group most helpful to get answers to questions outside class and to receive comments from peers. No strong preferences were expressed by students for type of lecture format. On a 5-point scale (1 = none to 5 = a lot), students' self-assessment of experience with the Internet as a result of the course increased 1.3 points, on average, while experience with e-mail increased 0.8 points. On the same scale, home horticulture knowledge gained was self-assessed to have increased by an average of 1.4 points.

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Distance education is an area of rapid expansion in higher education today. Unfortunately, the development of distance education efforts, like all new programming, is fraught with numerous barriers. Frequently, technological advances precede internal policies necessary to support these activities, and because of the nature of distance education, concerns over expense, workload, intellectual property, conflict of interest and teaching methodology may impede progress. Funding distance education efforts also requires long-term vision and commitment. It is essential that a clear vision, including identification of existing needs and benefits, be developed before equipment and personnel are secured. Finally, some distance education efforts by their nature involve collaboration between other institutions of higher education. These schools may view participation in these programs as opportunities for their advancement or possible encroachment on their educational market. Establishing strong relationships is essential for ultimate success. At Texas Tech Univ., the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources along with the Dept. of Plant and Soil Science have committed to the development and implementation of distance education as an educational tool providing enrichment and access to high-quality programming for its on campus and place-bound students. Some of the success stories as well as the frustrations behind these efforts will be discussed.

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desire to know current market trends to aid in planning and marketing strategies. Barriers to organic herb greenhouse production are high as a result of lack of available technical information and the low number of producers experienced in this area

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showed that nonwhite certified farmers were more likely to drop the certification program. It is likely that African American, Hispanics, and other minority farmers face greater barriers to remain certified, such lack of access to capital and price

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of pollinator-friendly plants ( Khachatryan et al. 2014 ; Rihn and Khachatryan 2016 ). Campbell et al. (2017) found that the lack of labeling was a barrier to purchasing pollinator-friendly plants for consumers. There is an opportunity for green

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access to the low-input turfgrasses; 3) Peer Effect , which delineates 5% of the variance, and represents the barrier that neighbors/public lawns/other households are not using low-input turfgrasses; 4) Sample , which represents 4% of the variance, and

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