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Juan O. Quijia Pillajo, Laura J. Chapin, and Michelle L. Jones

( Feng et al., 2014 ; Suzuki et al., 2017 ; Yoshimoto, 2012 ). In plants, autophagy is involved in senescence and abiotic stress responses ( Avila-Ospina et al., 2014 ; Liu et al., 2009 ). Autophagy is involved in the bulk degradation of intracellular

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Jingkang Hu, Yingmei Gao, Tingting Zhao, Jingfu Li, Meini Yao, and Xiangyang Xu

on the role of ZF-HD under different abiotic stresses in tomato. Tomato is one of the most popular crops worldwide; it presents good flavor characteristics and high nutritional value. With the publication of the entire genome sequence of tomato, a

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Yingmei Gao, Jingkang Hu, Tingting Zhao, Xiangyang Xu, Jingbin Jiang, and Jingfu Li

plants suffering from biotic and abiotic stresses ( Century et al., 2008 ). BRI1-EMS-suppressor 1 is a new class of TFs that bind to and activate the promoters of BR genes ( Yin et al., 2005 ). BRs regulate many plant growth and developmental processes

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Tao Wang, Ruijie Hao, Huitang Pan, Tangren Cheng, and Qixiang Zhang

detect and verify changes in the mRNA expression levels of genes at different developmental stages ( Koo et al., 2010 ; Vaucheret et al., 2004 ) and under various abiotic stress ( Borges et al., 2012 ; Du et al., 2013 ). Normalized quantification of

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Jim Syvertsen and Yoseph Levy

Multiple stresses almost always have synergistic effects on plants. In citrus, there are direct and indirect interactions between salinity and other physical abiotic stresses like poor soil drainage, drought, irradiance, leaf temperature, and atmospheric evaporative demand. In addition, salinity interacts with biotic pests and diseases including root rot (Phytophthora spp.), nematodes, and mycorrhizae. Improving tree water relations through optimum irrigation/drainage management, maintaining nutrient balances, and decreasing evaporative demand can alleviate salt injury and decrease toxic ion accumulation. Irrigation with high salinity water not only can have direct effects on root pathogens, but salinity can also predispose citrus rootstocks to attack by root rot and nematodes. Rootstocks known to be tolerant to root rot and nematode pests can become more susceptible when irrigated with high salinity water. In addition, nematodes and mycorrhizae can affect the salt tolerance of citrus roots and may increase chloride (Cl-) uptake. Not all effects of salinity are negative, however, as moderate salinity stress can reduce physiological activity and growth, allowing citrus seedlings to survive cold stress, and can even enhance flowering after the salinity stress is relieved.

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Seung Hee Eom and Tae Kyung Hyun

gene pairs was calculated according to the formula T = Ks/2λ. The mean value of clock-like rate (λ) for B . rapa was 1.5 × 10 −8 ( Koch et al., 2000 ). Plant growth condition and abiotic stress treatments. Chinese cabbage (cv. Chunkwang) seeds

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Beiquan Mou

crop resistance or tolerance to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, flood, salt, pH, etc.) has not received much attention. However, that is changing as a result of the research and publicity of global warming. “Adaptive research” aiming at adapting

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Mohamed Tawfik, Alejandra Ferenczi, Daniel Enter, and Rebecca Grumet

Poster Session 25—Stress Physiology 19 July 2005, 1:15–2:00 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F

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held at the 91st ASHS Annual Meeting Corvallis, Ore. 9 Aug. 1994 sponsored by the Seedling Establishment Working Group Environmental Stress Physiology Working Group Root Growth and Rhizophere Dynamics Working Group Seed Research Working Group