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), total root surface area (TSA), total root volume (TRV), and average root diameter (ARD). The root phenotypes were quantified via analysis of the scanned images using an established WinRHIZO Pro 2015a Regent instrument software (Regent Instruments Inc

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transparency unit (Epson, Suwa, Nagano Prefecture, Japan). Roots were arranged to minimize overlap and crossing, and then were scanned and analyzed using WinRHIZO software version 2003b, which has been demonstrated to provide accurate measurements of total root

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positioned with no overlapping roots to allow for more uniform scanning. Scans were done in gray scale at 800 dots per inch to increase resolution of fine roots. Each image was analyzed using an image analysis system (WinRHIZO™ version 2012b; Regent

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Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) [4-(cyclopropyl-a-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester] effects on turfgrass root architecture are not known. It has been postulated that PGR application could cause photoassimilate that is normally used for shoot growth to be funneled to root growth. This study evaluated the effects of a single TE application on kentucky bluegrass (KBG) root and shoot growth for seven weeks. Individual KBG plants were grown in a hydroponic system and harvested weekly. At each harvest, tiller height, tiller number, and color ratings were recorded. Estimates of total root length (TRL), root surface area (SA), and average root diameter were measured using the WinRhizo system. Trinexapac-ethyl reduced plant height for 4 weeks followed by a period of postinhibition growth enhancement. Trinexapac-ethyl increased tiller number over the course of the study and slightly enhanced plant color. Trinexapac-ethyl reduced TRL and SA 48% and 46% at 1 week after treatment (WAT) followed by an accelerated growth rate 1 to 4 WAT. Trinexapac-ethyl had no effect on root diameter. On a tiller basis, TE initially reduced TRL and SA 30% and 31%, respectively. Total root length per tiller and root surface area per tiller were reduced by TE treatment, but by 7 WAT, those differences were no longer significant. Initial reductions in TRL and SA per tiller may reduce tiller competitiveness for water and nutrients. Based on data for TRL and SA per tiller, shoot and root growth must be considered in total to fully understand TE effects on plant growth. Field research is needed to corroborate results from hydroponic-studies and examine the effect of various TE rates and multiple applications on turfgrass root and shoot growth.

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Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) is difficult to transplant due to poor root regeneration. Despite reduced yields, growers are transplanting sweet corn to hasten maturity time to target profitable early markets in the Northeast. Researchers have ascribed the negative impacts on yield to restricted rooting volume. Therefore, the impacts plug cell volume had on sweet corn transplant root architecture and biomass accumulation were investigated. `Temptation' sweet corn was sown in volumes of 15, 19, 14, and 29 mL correlating to transplant plug trays with plug counts of 200, 162, 128, and 72 plugs per tray. Plug cells were exposed to three substrate environments; a dairy manure based organic compost media, a commercial soil-less germination mix, and the soil-less media supplemented 2X with 200 ppm soluble 3-3-3 organic fertilizer. A 4 × 3 factorial randomized complete-block experimental design with two blocks and five replicates per treatment was repeated twice in the greenhouse. For each experiment a total of three center cells were harvested from each replicate for analysis using the WinRhizo Pro root scanning system (Regent Instruments Inc., Montreal). Three cells per treatment were also transplanted into 8-inch pots to stimulate field transplanting. Based on mean separation tests (n = 30), increased cell volume before transplanting significantly increased root surface area, average diameter, and root volume after transplanting (n = 18). Mean root surface area for a 29-mL cell was 30% greater than a 15-mL cell before transplanting and 22% greater after transplanting. Plug cell volume also significantly impacted shoot and root biomass (P <0.0001). A 14-mL increase in cell volume resulted in a root and shoot dry weight increase of about 15%.

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Soil organic matter is a critical component which is fundamental in plant growth. Several soil factors are influenced by organic matter such as slow release of nutrients, increased water holding capacity, improved soil physical characteristics and improved environment for soil microorganisms. The aim of this work is to investigate the physical effect of organic matter content in the soil on apple root growth and development. Twenty five two-year old apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh) cv. `Buckeye Gala' on M.9 NAKB 337 rootstock were planted in completely transparent acrylic boxes. Plants have been grown in a green house to avoid external rain in a complete randomized design. Trees were planted in a sandy-mix soil amended with soil high in organic matter, “muck”, at four incremental levels. Treatments compared were a control (sandy soil with 0% organic matter) and 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% soil organic matter. The amount of water applied by automatic drip irrigation was comparable for all the treatments to avoid high fluctuation of soil moisture on root dynamics. All treatments have been fertilized with the same amount of mineral fertilizer to avoid the nutrition effect on root dynamics. Digital photos of roots were taken to study their dynamics every one to two weeks during a period of five months. Roots have been highlighted with Photoshop and then analyzed with WinRhizo to measure root length, area, lifespan and dynamics. At the end of the growing period plants have been harvested and fresh and dry weight was evaluated to asses the root/shoot ratio. The effects of the treatments on root length, area, lifespan and dynamics, and root/shoot ratio will be discussed.

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were 5 cm or greater in length were floated on waterproof trays and scanned using a specialized Dual Scan optical scanner (Regent Instruments, Inc., Quebec, Canada). The acquisition and image analysis software was WinRHIZO Pro (v. 2009c; Regent

Open Access

(WinRHIZO version 2012b; Regent Instruments, Quebec, QC, Canada). Root morphologic data collected from these scans included TRL, average root diameter, diameter class length, diameter class length proportions, and total root surface area. TRL of root systems

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development, roots were scanned at each harvest using WinRhizo (Regent Instruments Inc., Quebec, Canada) and analyzed to determine root surface area and root volume. Root surface area and volume were determined by first washing all media off roots by hand and

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were 10 cm or longer in length were floated on waterproof trays and scanned using a specialized Dual Scan optical scanner (Regent Instruments Inc., Quebec, Canada). The acquisition and image analysis software was WinRHIZO Pro (v. 2009c; Regent

Open Access