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Michael E. Tarter and Stefano Poni

The variate “cluster weight” is an important Vitis vinifera vine yield component and its main subcomponents are berry number and berry weight ( Clingeleffer et al., 2000 ). This variate's values can be affected by factors that include scion

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Susana Boso Alonso, Virginia Alonso-Villaverde Pilar Gago, José L. Santiago, Mariá C. Martínez and Emilio Rodriguez

The grapevine cultivar Albariño ( Vitis vinifera L.) has long been grown in northwestern Spain and the north of Portugal. The approval of the Appellation Contrôlée (A.C) “Rías Baixas” denomination in northwestern Spain in 1988 ( Ministerio de

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Fucheng Shan and Kevin Seaton

propagation techniques. Materials and Method Plant materials and preparation All the plant propagation materials were maintained in pots in a greenhouse at the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, South Perth. The grapevines ( Vitis vinifera

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Cassandra M. Plank, Edward W. Hellman and Thayne Montague

MPs are a class of aroma compounds responsible for vegetal aromas in fruit of some Vitis vinifera L. wine grape cultivars. MPs have been quantified in Grenache ( López et al., 1999 ), Merlot ( Sala et al., 2000 ), Cabernet Franc ( Allen et al

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Jiang Lu and Lloyd Schell

Vitis rotundifolia (Muscadine grapes), a native species characterized with multiple resistance to grape diseases and insects, are cultivated throughout the southeastern U.S. for fresh fruit and processing. However, the species falls short of consumer's expectation as fresh fruit due to its seediness and thick skin. However, Vitis vinifera, a predominant Vitis species grown worldwide possesses good fruit characteristics such as seedlessness and edible skin but is susceptible to many diseases. Attempts to produce rotundifolia-vinifera hybrids to combine good fruit quality and disease resistance of both into F1 hybrids have been made by grape breeders for many years. Limited success was only reported when the V. vinifera was used as seed parents. Pollinating seedless vinifera pollen onV. rotundifolia stigma was made in 1993 and 1994. More than 20,000 flowers from 34 cross combinations were pollinated. These crosses were made to see if there is any chance to produce hybrids when muscadine grapes were used as female parent and specifically to introgress the seedlessness from European grapes into muscadine grapes. A few hundred seeds were collected from these crosses and germinated in a greenhouse. Two seedlings were clearly distinguished from the others with morphology intermediate between muscadine and the vinifera grapes, while the rest looked straight muscadine grapes derived from possible contaminated pollination. This conclusion was further confirmed by isozyme and DNA markers. One of the seedlings produced from the cross of `Jumbo' × `Thompson Seedless' grew vigorously and has been setting fruit since 1996. Fruit are mixture of stenospermocarpic and pathonocarpic seedlessness. Fruit setting and pollen viability test indicated that this hybrid is at least partly self-fertile. Many other characteristics of the hybrid, such as leaves, stems, tendrils, time of budbreak, bloom date, and ripen date are intermediate between muscadine and bunch grapes. The hybrid is resistant to Pierce's disease, anthracnose disease, and downy mildew, which are the limited factor to growing V. vinifera in the hot and humid southeastern U.S. This is the first report of a seedless hybrid from V. rotundifolia × V. vinifera.

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Wanmei Jin, Jing Dong, Yuanlei Hu, Zhongping Lin, Xuefeng Xu and Zhenhai Han

a widely grown fruit crop in the world. ‘Centennial Seedless’ of Vitis vinifera L. is one of the most widely grown grape varieties in China because it is suitable for both table consumption and wine production ( Kong, 2004 ). The berries of the

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D.W. Ramming, R.L. Emershad, P. Spiegel-Roy, N. Sahar and I. Baron

Immature grape embryos from early ripening genotypes of Vitis vinifera were successfully cultured in vitro on Difco orchid agar or a modified White's agar medium. Germination was increased in vitro for five genotypes from 0%, 7%, 11%, 12%, and 16% in vivo to 15%, 24%, 23%, 34%, and 24%, respectively. Subculturing embryos onto liquid culture from seeds that failed to germinate on agar also was possible. Differences in germination rates, as affected by pollen, were significant. This method will allow accelerated development of early ripening cultivars by allowing breeders to use such genotypes as females, as well as males.

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F.J. Montero, J.A. de Juan, A. Cuesta and A. Brasa

The importance of rapid, nondestructive, and accurate measurements of leaf area (LA) in agronomic and physiological studies is well known, but a search of the literature revealed little information available for grape (Vitis vinifera L.). The results described herein include a comparison of 12 different mathematical models for estimating leaf area in `Cencibel'. The simplest, most accurate regression equations were: LAi = 0.587 LW (R 2 = 0.987) and LAi = 0.588 LW (R 2 = 0.994), where LAi is leaf area measured using image analysis and LW is leaf length × maximum width. Use of maximum width (W), leaf length (L), petiole length (Lp), and dry weight of leaves (DML) as single variables in the regression equations were not as closely associated with total leaf area, although their R 2 values were also highly significant.

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Sorkel Kadir

High temperature adversely affects photosynthetic rates and thylakoid activities in many species, but photosynthesis response to heat stress is not well defined in grapes (Vitis L.). Genotypes within species respond differently to high temperatures, indicating a genetic variability for the trait. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological responses of two grape species to high temperature, at the whole-plant level and at the cellular level. Gas exchange, relative chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves and thermostability of extracted thylakoids of the American (V. aestivalis Michx.) `Cynthiana' and European (V. vinifera L.) `Semillon', `Pinot Noir', `Chardonnay', and `Cabernet Sauvignon' wine grapes were evaluated. One-year-old vines were placed in controlled environmental chamber held at 20/15, 30/25, or 40/35 °C day/night for 4 weeks. Net CO2 assimilation (A) rate, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) rate, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves were measured at weekly intervals. Chlorophyll fluorescence of thylakoids extracted from V. aestivalis `Cynthiana' and V. vinifera `Pinot Noir' subjected to temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 °C was measured. Optimal temperatures for photosynthesis were 20/15 °C for `Cynthiana' and `Semillon' and 30/25 °C for the other three V. vinifera cultivars. The A, gs, E, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence values at 40/35 °C were lower in `Cynthiana' than `Pinot Noir'. In general, reduction of A coincided with decline in gs in `Cynthiana', whereas no strong relationship between A and gs was observed in V. vinifera cultivars. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv) and the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of intact leaves for all the cultivars decreased at 40/35 °C, with severe decline in `Cynthiana' and `Cabernet Sauvignon,' moderate decline in `Semillon' and `Chardonnay', and slight decline in `Pinot Noir'. A distinct effect of high temperature on Fv and Fv/Fm of `Cynthiana' was exerted after 2 weeks of exposure. Prolonged-exposure to 40/35 °C led to 78% decrease in Fv/Fm in `Cynthiana', compared with 8% decrease in `Pinot Noir'. In general, Fv and Fv/Fm of extracted thylakoids declined as temperature increased, with more decline in `Cynthiana' than in `Pinot Noir'. Based on A rates and Fv/Fm ratios, results showed that `Cynthiana' has lower optimal temperature for photosynthesis (20/15 °C) than `Pinot Noir' (30/25 °C). Chlorophyll fluorescence responses of intact leaves and extracted thylakoids to high temperatures indicate that `Pinot Noir' possess higher photosynthetic activity than `Cynthiana'. Results of this work could be used in selection programs for the development of heat resistant cultivars in the warmest regions.

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Danielle Lo Giudice, Tony K. Wolf and Richard P. Marini

Prohexadione-calcium (prohexadione-Ca) was evaluated for its ability to suppress vegetative growth of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) under field conditions. Two or three applications of 250 mg·L-1 prohexadione-Ca reduced primary shoot growth of `Cabernet Sauvignon', but had little effect on other canopy characteristics or cane pruning weights. The reduction of shoot growth was not persistent and shoot hedging was ultimately needed to avoid canopy shading. Similarly, three applications of either 125, 250, or 375 mg·L-1 prohexadione-Ca reduced `Cabernet franc' shoot growth, but again did not eliminate the need for shoot hedging. Cane pruning weights of `Cabernet franc' were unaffected by treatment, and canopy characteristics were generally not improved. Two prebloom and one postbloom application of 250 mg·L-1 prohexadione-Ca were evaluated on `Cabernet franc' and `Chardonnay' in separate field experiments. The prebloom treatments retarded shoot growth of `Chardonnay', but had no effects on `Cabernet franc' shoot characteristics. To retard shoot growth, prohexadione-Ca had to be applied prior to bloom; however, prebloom applications had the potential for severe reductions in crop yield.