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Jonathan M. Frantz, Bryon Hand, Lee Buckingham, and Somik Ghose

in a greenhouse could yield useful information about energy requirements of different structures and allow for simulations in different locations and cropping periods. A computer program was developed called Virtual Grower that combines the NREL

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Jonathan M. Frantz

growth within a more traditional warm, well-insulated greenhouse, without CO 2 injection. This experiment was combined with simulations using Virtual Grower software ( Frantz et al., 2010 ) that compared cost, fuel use, and C consumed because of heating

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Matthew G. Blanchard and Erik S. Runkle

18/18, 20/14, 16/22, 22/22, 24/18, or 20/26 °C for finish dates of 15 Mar., 15 Apr., or 15 May was estimated for Charlotte, NC, Grand Rapids, MI, and Minneapolis, MN, by using the Virtual Grower 2.51 software ( Frantz et al., 2010 ). Production time

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Jennifer K. Boldt

). Energy savings. Using Virtual Grower 3.0.9, energy costs were estimated based on the location, materials, dimensions, and heating and lighting schedules of the greenhouse compartments in which the experiment was conducted. Total energy costs were

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E.B. Poling

Working on the basic idea that the small fruit industries in Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, and other states in the south have a great deal of growth potential, especially in strawberries, the Southern Region Small Fruit Center is now becoming a very focused collaboration between several land-grant institutions to develop a virtual small fruit center web site that will serve to keep specialists, agents, growers, and students well informed on the latest small fruit research and technical findings. It would also give instant access to a variety of small fruit extension publications, budgets, and crop advisories. The site,, opened on 17 Sept. 1999, and was immediately utilized after Hurricane Floyd “hit” to post a series of berry info advisories on specific postplant management strategies to minimize further yield losses due to the extra week of delayed planting caused by Floyd's flooding. The main benefit of regional or multistate institutional approach is that it gives us the “extra horsepower” for tackling some fairly ambitious projects, like the creation of a virtual small fruit center. Recently, the center has begun to offer more in-depth regional training courses for agents and growers, such as the “Extension Strawberry Plasticulture” short course that was conducted on North Carolina State Centennial Campus, 1-5 Nov. 1999. We currently have a “critical mass” of some of the best small fruit research and extension workers you will find anywhere across the whole southern region, and by working together we can develop stronger, more economically viable small fruit industries.

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Niels Ehler, Mark A. Rose, and Jesper Mazanti Hansen

Currently, greenhouse environmental computers are programmed to monitor and control the macroclimate instead of directly controlling plant growth and development, which are features of more interest to growers. Our objective was to develop a generic system to represent and control the dynamic plant processes that regulate plant growth in the greenhouse. Before plant growth can be directly controlled, the dynamic interactions between the microclimate around plants and plant physiological processes must be further understood. Future computerized control systems must be able to display an intuitive, interactive software program that helps the user understand and make use of the dynamic relationships between climate controls, climate processes, and plant processes. A conceptual framework was designed for a user interface with a biological orientation. This software consists of five different elements: the information provider, the information monitor, the information browser, the growth system controller, and the system visualizer. A demonstrator application illustrating this concept was developed and connected in real time to a standard greenhouse environmental computer. Crop tissue temperature is calculated and used instead of conventional irradiance limits to control shading screens to optimize the amount of radiation absorbed by the crop. The application is based on a set of generic automatically created paradox databases. A graphical user interface on the screen displays virtual plants that are used for visualizing, understanding, and controlling the different processes governing the crop tissue temperature.

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Kent D. Kobayashi

real world situations ( Klemm and Tuthill, 2003 ). However, instructors sometimes face instructional and logistical constraints that can hinder their planning and conducting of actual field trips ( Harkess et al., 2007 ). An alternative is the virtual

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marketable slip production. Growers should use a seed-root density from 49 to 85 bushels/1000 ft 2 depending upon variety, and any root size to obtain optimum marketable slip production. Chemical Properties of Various Biochar Products The use of biochar has

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William S. Castle

Florida citrus plant improvement team, here is an historical perspective on citrus rootstocks along with some observations and reflections on the human or social side of research and grower cooperation. It is well established from decades of experience

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Charles R. Hall and Dewayne L. Ingram

°C minimum air temperature based on an analysis by Biotherm. Heating the air would require 109,498 MJ of heat energy December through May as calculated by Virtual Grower, a calculator for greenhouse heating requirements developed and maintained by the