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T omato yellow leaf curl virus , a begomovirus, was first described in Israel in 1939 ( Picó et al., 1996 ), and subsequently became a major constraint to tomato production in the entire Mediterranean basin ( Czosnek et al., 1990 ). TYLCV is

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Moustafa, S.E. 1991 Tomato cultivation and breeding program for tomato yellow leaf curl virus 6 8 Laterrot H. Trousse C. Resistance of the Tomato to TYLCV, Proceedings of the seminar of EEC contract DGXII-TS2-A-055 F (CD

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additional TYLCV resistance loci besides Ty-3 and Ty-4 may exist in these lines. Table 5. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease severity for tomato recombinant inbred lines containing Ty-3 with or without Ty-4

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that the resistance in the heterozygotes was effective at the late stage of plant growth and that there may have been some detrimental effects when the introgressed region was homozygous. Table 3. Disease [ Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV

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yellow leaf curl virus disease severity and genotype at the SlNAC1 locus of F 3 tomato progeny lines that segregated for resistance in Fall 2009. Fig. 1. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) symptom expression and genotype at the SlNAC1 locus of F

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2010 Introgression of resistance to two mediterranean virus species causing tomato yellow leaf curl into a valuable traditional tomato variety J Plant Pathol. 92 2 485 493 Behare, J Laterrot, H Sarfatti, M Zamir, D 1991 Restriction

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The genetic basis of resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato mottle virus (ToMoV) was studied in three different mapping populations of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to TYLCV and ToMoV resistance. Segregated RAPD markers associated with resistance were linked to morphological markers self-pruning (sp) and potato leaf (c) on chromosome 6. RAPD genetic linkage maps of chromosome 6 were constructed for each of the three populations. Common mapped markers revealed straightforward homologies between the chromosome 6 linkage group of the three populations. Multiple-QTL mapping (MQM) was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance linked to chromosome 6. These revealed that the resistance against TYLCV and ToMoV was mainly explained by two QTL in two populations and one QTL in another. For all of the resistance QTL detected, the favorable allele was provided by the resistant parents. The presence of three different sources of TYLCV and ToMoV resistance, and the markers in tight linkage with them, provide a means of systemically combining multiple resistance genes. Successful cloning of the R gene from tomatoes would lead to deeper understanding of the molecular basis of resistance to TYLCV and ToMoV, and might also shed light on the evolution of resistance genes in plants in general.

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Abstract

Inheritance of resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was studied in the interspecific crosses Lycopersicon escutentum Mill. cv. UC 82 x Lycopersicon cheesmanii ssp. minor (Hook) C.H. Mill. LA 1401, and Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VF 145-B-7879 x Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. LA 386. Genetic populations were artificially inoculated with TYLCV prior to transplanting, and were later evaluated under field conditions. Reaction of parents, F2 and F3 plants, and backcrosses of resistant F2 plants to UC 82, indicated that resistance derived from L. cheesmanii seems to be recessive. Narrow sense heritability (NSH) was 0.44. Reaction of parental F1, F2, and backcross plants indicated that resistance derived from L. hirsutum is dominant and controlled by more than one gene.

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Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), transmitted by the tobacco whitefy (Bemisia tabaci Genn.), can be devastating to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) crops in tropical and subtropical regions. The development of resistant cultivars is the best option for control of TYLCV. However, all the available resistant commercial cultivars tested at the Volcani Center, when inoculated with TYLCV, developed different levels of disease symptoms. In this study, we report the development of a breeding line, TY172, which is a symptomless carrier of TYLCV. Line TY172, whether infected in the greenhouse with viruliferous whiteflies, or when grown in the field under natural infection, showed no symptoms of the disease. Viral DNA was detected in infected TY172 plants, albeit at much lower levels than a susceptible infected control. In addition, grafting experiments using infected susceptible scions grafted onto TY172 stocks, showed that even when exposed continuously to very high levels of virus, line TY172 did not develop disease symptoms, nor did it accumulate high levels of the virus. When TY172 was crossed with susceptible lines, the hybrids exhibited milder symptoms and lower viral content than the susceptible parent, yet higher than that of TY172, suggesting a partial dominance for the TY172 resistance. Upon inoculation of F2 populations, the amount of symptomless individuals appeared in a ratio of≈7:64. This suggests that at least three genes may account for the resistance.

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1 Current address: Dekalb Argentina S.A., Ruta Nacional 226, km 7, Mar del Plata (7600), Argentina. Journal paper no. 162 of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center. We thank G. Kalloo, for providing seed of H24 tomato line, and the

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