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David G. Riley, Shimat V. Joseph, W. Terry Kelley, Steve Olson, and John Scott

The occurrence in north-east Spain of a variant of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that breaks resistance in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) containing the Sw-5 gene Plant Pathol. 52 407 Aramburu, J. Rodriguez, M. 1999 Evaluation of commercial

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Matthew D. Robbins, Mohammed A.T. Masud, Dilip R. Panthee, Randolph G. Gardner, David M. Francis, and Mikel R. Stevens

. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary (late blight) are responsible for substantial tomato crop losses worldwide ( Foolad et al., 2008 ; Fry and Goodwin, 1997 ; Kim and Mutschler, 2005 , 2006 ; Mumford et al

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Olga Fedorowicz, Grzegorz Bartoszewski, Maria Kamińska, Pravda Stoeva, and Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail address: niemirowicz@alpha.sggw.waw.pl This work was partially supported by the Polish State Committee for Scientific Research Grant No. 6PO6A01820. Tomato breeding line KR was kindly provided

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M.J. Díez, S. Roselló, F. Nuez, J. Costa, M.S. Catalá, and A. Lacasa

Seedlings of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars [`RDD', carrier of the Sw5 gene, which confers resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV); `Pitihué', tolerant to the virus; and the susceptible cultivar Rutgers] were placed at the four- to five-leaf stage in cages containing a population of viruliferous thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Perg.), and remained there for 0, 7, or 15 days. Plants were subsequently transplanted either into the open field or in tunnels protected with a mesh of 14 × 10 threads/cm. Systemic symptoms and number of dead plants were recorded and enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed. `Rutgers' exhibited severe systemic symptoms regardless of treatment and a high number of plants died. The level of infected plants remained low when protective measures were applied to seedlings of `Pitihué' and acceptable yields were obtained. In open air cultivation, where seedling infection was severe, <20% of `RDD' plants became infected and high yields were obtained; protected cultivation did not reduce yield. Although the percentage of infected plants was higher when cultivated under mesh, the yield of all three cultivars was greater than in the open field. The environment created under mesh stimulated growth, neutralizing the effect of the infection.

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Jong Wook Kim, Thomas L. German, and Samuel S. M. Sun

Nucleocapsid protein (N) gene was isolated from tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Hawaiian L isolate, and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc in order to test for “CP-mediated protection”. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed. The integrity and the expression of N gene were verified by Southern blot and Northern blot analysis, and the N protein in the transgenic tobacco plants were determined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Several first generation of transgenic tobacco were tested for virus resistance. Comparably smaller numbers of the local lesions were developed with several day of delay in the in-frame transformants.

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Arcenio Gutierrez-Estrada, Emma Zavaleta-Mejl̀a, and Gustavo Mora-Aguilera

Viruses associated to eight Alstroemeria varieties and the relationship of thrips density and environmental factors with Tomato Spotted Wilt (TSW) intensity as well as the TSW effect on yield were studied in `Rosario' in Central Mèxico. Using hosts range the viruses detected were Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus (TSWV), Impatiens Necrotic Spot Tospovirus (INSV), Alstroemeria Mosaic Potyvirus (AlMV), Alstroemeria Streak Potyvirus (ASV), Arabis Mosaic Nepovirus (ArMV), and Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV). With serology it was confirmed the presence of TSWV in `Jubilee', `Rosario', and `Regina' varieties; INSV in `Anabel', `Jubilee', and `Red Sunset'; and AlMV in `Rosario', `Red Sunset', `Rosita', `Yellow King', `Jubilee'. and `Rojo Sangria'. TSWV and AlMV were found coinfecting `Rosario' plants. Five percent of plants were serologically positive to TSWV in the first flower harvest (25 Jan.-5 Apr.), 10% in the second (12 Ap.-21 June), and third (5 July-13 Sept.), and 18% in the last harvest (23 Sept.-6 Dec.). The highest peak density of thrips (520 to 630 individuals per sticky trap) were registered when the maximum temperature was higher than 35 °C and the relative humidity was between 40% to 60%. However, such peak density was not correlated with a significant increase of TSW incidence. Number and quality of inflorescences and the stem growth rate were significantly higher (P = 0.05) in plots with asymptomatic plants than that with plants showing putative symptoms of TSW.

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Arcenio Gutièrrez-Estrada, Emma Zavaleta-Mejl̀a, and Gustavo Mora-Aguilera

Viruses associated to eight Alstroemeria varieties and the relationship of thrips density and environmental factors with Tomato Spotted Wilt (TSW) intensity as well as the TSW effect on yield were studied in `Rosario' in Central Mexico. Using hosts range the viruses detected were Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus (TSWV), Impatiens Necrotic Spot Tospovirus (INSV), Alstroemeria Mosaic Potyvirus (AlMV), Alstroemeria Streak Potyvirus (ASV), Arabis Mosaic Nepovirus (ArMV) and Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV). With serology, the presence of TSWV was confirmed in `Jubilee', `Rosario', and `Regina'; INSV in `Anabel', `Jubilee', and `Red Sunset'; and AlMV in `Rosario', `Red Sunset', `Rosita', `Yellow King', `Jubilee', and `Rojo Sangria'. TSWV and AlMV were found coinfecting `Rosario' plants. Five percent of plants were serologically positive to TSWV in the first flower harvest (25 Jan.-5 Apr.), 10% in the second (12 Apr.-21 June), and third (5 July-13 Sept.) and 18% in the last harvest (24 Sept.-6 Dec.). The highest peak density of thrips (520 to 630 individuals per sticky trap) were registered when the maximum temperature was higher than 35 °C and the relative humidity was between 40% to 60%. However, such peak density was not correlated with a significant increase of TSW incidence. Number and quality of inflorescences and the stem growth rate were significantly higher (P = 0.05) in plots with asymptomatic plants than that with plants showing putative symptoms of TSW.

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S.J. Scott, M. Stevens, and R.C. Gergerich

Seedlings of eight accessions of L. hirsutum and susceptible L. esculentum `VF Pink' controls were spray inoculated twice in the greenhouse with tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Arkansas 85-9. Plants lacking symptoms were reinoculated, then evaluated for TSWV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Controls were consistently infected; sixty noninfected L. hirsutum were propagated by cuttings and inoculated with TSWV isolates T2 (lettuce), G-87 (gloxinia), 87-34 (tomato) and a mixture of the four isolates. All selections became infected in at least one test, but systemic infection was often delayed. Additional wild Lycopersicon species and numbers of accessions evaluated for resistance to TSWV include L. cheesmanii (9), L. chmielewskii (17), L. hirsutum (24), L. hirsutum f. glabratum (17), L. parviflorum (4) and L. pennellii (44). No new sources of strong resistance have been identified yet. Evaluation of additional species and accessions is continuing.

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Juan C. Díaz-Pérez, K. Dean Batal, Darbie Granberry, Denne Bertrand, David Giddings, and Hanu Pappu

field and laboratory tasks. We acknowledge support of the following donors: Asgrow, BHN, and Peto Seed for tomato seeds; United Irrigation and Roberts Irrigation Products, for drip tape; Hydro Agri North America, for calcium nitrate liquid fertilizer

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W.B. Evans, D.M. Ingram, C. Waldrup, B. Layton, A. Milling, T. Bishop, and V. Lee

Mississippi's two largest tomato-growing areas are in Smith and George Counties. The Truck Crops Branch Experiment Station in Crystal Springs is the closest vegetable research site to Smith County but does not share the same soil type. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) reduces fruit yield and marketability, and its incidence appears to be increasing in the state. The objectives of this trial were 1) to determine fruit yield and TSWV incidence in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in central Mississippi, and 2) compare yield and relative yield among cultivars and between locations. Tomato seedlings were transplanted to the field in April 2004 in Smith and Copiah County plots. Production practices included raised beds, black plastic mulch, drip irrigation, and fertilizer applied pre-plant and as side-dressings based on soil test and regionally recommended practices. TSWV incidence was recorded in each plot in Smith Co. in June 2004. In both locations, `Amelia' and `Mountain Spring' were among the top yielding entries. In Smith, the top entries also included `BHN 543' and two commercial experimental entries. In Copiah, `Florida 47 R', `Biltmore', `Mountain Fresh', and `BHN 543' also produced high marketable yields. `Florida 47R', `Bush Celebrity', and `Mountain Fresh' were among the poorest yielding varieties in Smith County. Incidence of TSWV was not formally rated in Copiah. In Smith, percent symptomatic plants per plot were negatively correlated with yield. Symptoms were found on entries reportedly resistant or tolerant to TSWV.