Bananas are usually harvested at the “all green” maturity stage in the country of origin and exported to main markets. Upon arrival, fruits are forced to ripen with ethylene and moved to market conditions to accelerate color change and ripening. Fruits exposed to low relative humidity conditions at market frequently induce browning of the peel and diminish quality. To protect fruits marketed under those conditions and to reduce peel browning, SmartFresh™ (1-MCP) alone or combined with two film coatings was evaluated. Banana Cavendish type fruits obtained from a warehouse at all green color stage were applied with two film coatings: 1) SemperFresh™ (1.2%); or 2) FreshSeal™ (3 °Brix). Additionally, a set of fruits were left as a control without coatings. Coated and control fruits were then exposed to 150 ppm of ethylene for 24 hours at 20 °C. When fruits reached color stage 3 (more green than yellow), 0 and 300 ppb of 1-MCP were applied for 12 hours at 22 °C. Fruits from all six treatments were stored at 22 °C and 30% to 40% relative humidity for 5 days to follow quality changes and browning development. Weight loss, firmness, color, pH, acidity, °Brix and appearance were evaluated daily. Control fruits, SmartFresh™ alone, FreshSeal™ + SmartFresh™ and both film coatings alone lost more than 10% of weight after 5 days. Only fruits treated with SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ reduced weight loss below 10%. Firmness tests indicated a higher force penetration due to dehydration of peel. Pronounced browning was observed on control fruits. SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ delayed yellow color appearance, sugar spot incidence, and peel browning development, extending shelf-life. No significant changes were observed on chemical characteristics.
Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
James P. Mattheis
quality maintenance and avoidance of physiological disorders. Commercialization of 1-MCP as SmartFresh by AgroFresh has provided another tool for postharvest management of apple fruit. This technology has been widely adopted in a relatively short period of
Luis Pozo, Rongcai Yuan, Igor Kostenyuk, Fernando Alférez, Guang Yan Zhong, and Jacqueline K. Burns
assistance of Ana Redondo and Zhencai Wu, and the generous gift of SmartFresh® from Harlow Warner of Rohm & Haas, Inc.
MiAe Cho, Brandon M. Hurr, Jiwon Jeong, Chaill Lim, and Donald J. Huber
ethylene produced by nonclimacteric fruits and vegetables might be sufficient to accelerate senescence and related disorders during prolonged storage. Consistent with this idea, pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; SmartFresh Quality System
Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins
with 1 µL·L −1 1-MCP for 24 h at the respective temperatures using SmartFresh tablets (0.36% a.i., AgroFresh Inc., Dow AgroSciences) in a 4000-L plastic tent using a release and fan system supplied by the manufacturers. Untreated or treated fruit were
Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed, and Dwayne B. Visser
1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; SmartFresh; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) is used widely in the apple industry to control postharvest ripening and quality loss of apples in storage ( Fan et al., 1999 ; Watkins et al., 2000 ). The product is applied
H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe*, Dennis P. Murr, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Joseph Odumeru
Wounding during processing triggers physiological reactions that limits shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Exposure of `Empire' and `Crispin' apples at harvest to the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFresh™) on the maintenance of fresh-cut apple quality was evaluated in combination with post-cut dipping of NatureSeal™. Efficacy of 1-MCP on fresh-cut physiology and quality depended on the storage duration and apple cultivar. Ethylene production and respiration of apple slices were inhibited by 1-MCP but not by NatureSeal. Total volatiles produced by fresh-cut apples was not affected by the treatments. 1-MCP influenced the quality attributes of fresh-cut apple slices prepared from apples stored either 4 months in cold storage or 6 months in controlled atmosphere. Enzymatic browning and softening of the cut-surface, total soluble solids, and total microbial growth were suppressed by 1-MCP in `Empire' apples. Overall, the influence of 1-MCP on quality attributes in `Crispin' apple slices was marginal. NatureSeal consistently maintained the firmness of fresh-cut apple slices held at 4 °C for up to 21 days. The additive effect of 1-MCP in the maintenance of apple quality is an advantage for processing and marketing of fresh-cut apples.
Jiwon Jeong, James Lee, and Donald J. Huber
This study was performed to characterize the physiological responses of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit harvested at either 10% to 30% or 30% to 60% color change and treated with two forms of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Tomato fruit were treated either by submersion for 1 min in 1-MCP aqueous solution at the ambient temperature or by exposure for 12 h at 20 °C in air with 1-MCP gas, then stored at 20 °C. The concentrations (1.0, 5.0, or 10.0 μL·L-1) in 1-MCP aqueous solution were achieved through addition of 0.5, 2.5, or 5.0 g of AFxRD-300 powder (2.0% formulation, Agro-Fresh, Inc.) to 10 L of the de-ionized water, following manufacturer's instructions. 1-MCP (0.5 μL·L-1) gas in a 174-L container was achieved through addition of 0.22 g of SmartFresh® powder (0.14% formulation, Agro-Fresh, Inc.) to 100 mL of tap water. Both forms of 1-MCP significantly delayed ripening of fruit at the two initial ripeness stages, as noted by a significant delay in fruit softening and peel color change. The firmness of 30% to 60% color change tomatoes was significantly retained in response to gaseous or aqueous 1-MCP. Control fruit softened rapidly and reached the minimum marketable firmness value (about 5 N) within 8 days of storage at 20 °C, whereas fruit treated with gaseous 1-MCP (0.5 μL·L-1) or aqueous 1-MCP (1.0 or 5.0 μL·L-1) reached the same stage after 16, 20, or 24 days, respectively. Firmness retention was also highly significant for 10% to 30% color change tomatoes treated with both forms of 1-MCP. The highest concentration of aqueous 1-MCP (10.0 μL·L-1) did not result in a further delay in ripening compared with treatment at 5.0 or 1.0 μL·L-1 1-MCP.
Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
Banana fruits `Cavendish' type were obtained from a warehouse at color green stage. At arrival, fruits were taken out of boxes, dipped into a thiabendazole solution for 5 minutes, dried at room temperature and separated into three lots. One lot was sprayed with Fresh Seal™ (FS) at 3 °Brix, a second lot was treated with Semper Fresh™ (SF) at 1.2%, and the third was left as a control. After that, all fruits were packed again inside the plastic bags within the original carton boxes. Film-coated and control fruits were ethylene treated for 24 hours at 150 ppm, and vented for 24 hours until they reached color 3 (more green than yellow). After that, film-coated and control fruit boxes were collected inside 238-L airtight containers to apply Smartfresh™ (SMF) treatments at 0 and 300 ppb for 12 hours at 22 °C, complementing six different treatments. Later, fruits were stored at 22 °C and 80% to 90% relative humidity for 5 days to follow up changes. Quality evaluations were registered every day, including weight loss, firmness, color, CO2, ethylene, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix, and sugar spots. SF alone and the combinations SF + SMF and FS + SMF reduced weight loss as compared with the other treatments. SMF alone or in combination with FS or SF maintained higher firmness and delayed yellow color development as compared with the other treatments. Combinations of SF or FS with SMF delayed and reduced the incidence of sugar spots as compared with control fruits. Chemical characteristics were not significantly affected by the treatments, but SF + SMF had higher acidity and a lower pH. All treatments reached between 20 and 21 °Brix after 5 days. The data show that combined treatments of SMF and film coatings reduce sugar spot incidence, improving appearance and extending yellow life of fruits.
Penelope M. Perkins-Veazie and Sylvia Blankenship
(SmartFresh, Spring House, PA), it has now been registered for use on many edible crops. Perhaps the most studied of these fruits are apples. Researchers in the United States and Canada have many cooperative studies on variety, temperature, and storage