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Changying Li, Pengcheng Yu, Fumiomi Takeda and Gerard Krewer

questions, we designed a miniature instrumented sphere (Smart Berry) to mimic a real blueberry fruit by recording all significant impacts as it passes through the harvesting process. The Smart Berry is essentially a data logger with accelerometers, internal

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Christina M. Bavougian, Paul E. Read, Vicki L. Schlegel and Kathryn J. Hanford

[DOY 221 (2008), DOY 220 (2009)], point quadrat analysis was performed as described by Smart and Robinson (1991) . Three insertions were made for each sample plant. Point quadrat data were used to compute LLN. Yield and berry composition. Bird

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Seth DeBolt, Renata Ristic, Patrick G. Iland and Christopher M. Ford

between light exposure and organic acid biosynthesis by both immature and mature berries has been reported ( DeBolt et al., 2006 , 2007 ; Kliewer and Schultz, 1964 ) and showed that full sun exposure resulted in maximum levels of tartaric acid formation

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Cain C. Hickey and Tony K. Wolf

lateral shoots from primary shoot nodes 1 through 6 (PFS-6) at modified EL stage 29 (peppercorn-size berries) ( Dry and Coombe, 2004 ). Fruit-zone architecture. Point quadrat analysis ( Smart and Robinson, 1991 ) data were collected between modified EL

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Eric T. Stafne, Amir Rezazadeh, Melinda Miller-Butler and Barbara J. Smith

Sauvignon grape berries, p. 144–146. In: R. Smart, R. Thornton, S. Rodriquez, and J. Young (eds.). Proc. 2nd Intl. Symp. Cool Climate Viticult. Oenol. 11–15 Jan. 1988. Auckland, New Zealand Oren-Shamir, M. Levi-Nissim, A. 1997 Temperature effects on the leaf

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Geoffrey Dervishian and Robert L. Wample

shoot spacing along the cordon and increased canopy leaf area ( Smart and Robinson, 1991 ). There was no effect of treatments applied on the berry skin phenolics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ in either year of the study ( Table 4 ). The anthocyanin, flavonol

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Madeline Wimmer, Beth Ann Workmaster and Amaya Atucha

., 1994 ; Reynolds and Vanden Heuvel, 2009 ; Schultz, 1995 ; Smart et al., 1990 ). The percent of photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ) absorbed by each grape leaf is related to the depth of its position within the canopy, where inner canopy

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Lydia F. Wessner and Geoffrey Dervishian

Kurtural, 2013 ; Intrieri and Poni, 1995 ). Shoot thinning in vineyards is applied when average shoot length is between 15 and 25 cm. Smart (1988) reported optimal shoot densities to achieve desired fruit composition and wine sensory properties for cool

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Krista Shellie and D. Michael Glenn

between canopy size and crop load is achieved when the vine has sufficient leaf area to ripen the fruit without excessively shading leaves or clusters. In red wine grapes, deficit irrigation is used to manage canopy size as well as to alter berry phenolic

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Shijian Zhuang, Letizia Tozzini, Alan Green, Dana Acimovic, G. Stanley Howell, Simone D. Castellarin and Paolo Sabbatini

management techniques such as basal leaf removal are frequently used to increase sunlight exposure and exposed berry temperature ( Bledsoe et al., 1988 ; Smart and Robinson, 2008 ). Cluster exposure increases polyphenols and decreases acidity in cool