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the participants’ psychological stress using the STAI ( Spielberger et al., 1983 ) Japanese version [STAI-Form JYZ ( Hidano et al., 2000 )]. Anxiety is thought to be a variety of stress ( Aiken, 1961 ). The STAI can be used to measure two different

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comprehensively examined their influence on patient recovery using measures such as electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate variability (HRV), skin conductivity (SC), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To address this

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-based tactile stimulation. Previous studies have relied on physiological and psychological indices such as heart rate, heart rate variability, and Profile of Mood States–based methods ( Hassan et al. 2018c ). However, no studies have used the SDM, STAI, or

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” or “focus” to determine the level of concentration, whereas the eSense Meditation meter recorded the active mental processes within the brain and indicated the intensity of each participant’s level of mental “relaxation” or “calmness.” The STAI

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collected included the length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue (PPAF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1 (STAI-Y1), the Environmental

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each patient. This included length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue (PPAF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1 (STAI-Y1), Environmental

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