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Kim E. Hummer

Raspberry cultivation for fruit only became widespread in European countries by the 16th century ( Jennings, 1988 ). Modern uses of Rubus , the blackberries and raspberries, include consumption as delicious fresh fruits and processed in jams

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Brent Black, James Frisby, Kimberly Lewers, Fumiomi Takeda, and Chad Finn

Some caneberry ( Rubus L.) production regions experience dramatic seasonal variation in bloom date and fruit ripening time. Phenology and biology of flowering in both cultivated and wild raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) and blackberries have been

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Franco Famiani and Robert P. Walker

is possible that PEPCK might occur in blackberry seeds before ripening. In the other tissues of blackberry that were examined, PEPCK was only detected in ripe flesh ( Figs. 4 and 5 ). In raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.), blueberry, and tomato ( Solanum

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James R. Ballington, Wes Messinger, David F. Williams, and Emilia Garcia

Intermountain valleys in the Andean region of Bolivia are rich in diversity of Rubus species. Species in both subgenus Orobatus and subgenus Rubus occur in this region. These species include Rubus betonicifolius, R. bogotensis, R. Boliviensis, R. briaceus, R. holtenii, R. imperialis, R. macrocarpus, R. megalococcus, R. nubigenus, and R. roseus. Rubus macrocarpus and R. roseus have previously been determined to be worthy of domestication and commercialization as new crops in tropical highlands. The potential of the other species as new bramble crops and for use in breeding will be discussed.

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Archana Khadgi and Courtney A. Weber

terminology, the term prickle for the presence of epidermal appendages and prickle-free for the absence is used in this manuscript. The genus Rubus is an excellent member of the family Rosaceae to understand prickle initiation and development. Fruits of the

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Saki Toshima, Marika Fujii, Momoko Hidaka, Soya Nakagawa, Tomonari Hirano, and Hisato Kunitak

Rubus (Rosaceae) comprises more than 740 species with additional commercially cultivated raspberry ( R. idaeus ssp. idaeus) and blackberry ( R. fruticosus ) ( Gu et al., 1990 ). The fruit are used as ingredients in fresh dishes and processed

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Inga A. Zasada and Patrick P. Moore

Plant–parasitic nematodes were first reported in Rubus species in North America in the 1930s, when Pratylenchus species were associated with declining red raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) ( McElroy, 1992 ). Of the plant–parasitic nematodes

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Kim E. Hummer, Les H. Fuchigami, Vonda Peters, and Neil Bell

Stem and bud tissues of promocanes from more than 260 Rubus genotypes were evaluated for mid-winter cold hardiness after laboratory freezing in January 1990. T50 values were calculated for cane samples of red, yellow, black and purple raspberry, and blackberry cultivars, hybrids and species. Red raspberries exhibited the hardiest stem tissue, although several purple raspberries (Rubus sp. cvs. Brandywine, Royalty) survived as low as -33 C. Fall fruiting red raspberries, such as R. idaeus L. cvs. Zeva Remontante, Indian Summer, St. Regis, and Fallred, survived from -23 to -25 C. Summer-bearing cultivars, Canby and Puyallup, survived to -30 C. Stems of several black raspberries (R. occidentalis L. cvs. New Logan, Bristol) survived to -27 C. Stems of the hardiest blackberry cultivars, (R. sp. cvs. Black Satin, Smoothstem) survived to -22 C. In most genotypes the region of the bud at the axis of the stem was less hardy than tissues within the bud scales. Buds tissue was 2 to 10 C less hardy than stem tissue. Field plants were also visually rated for cold injury following record low temperatures occurring in 1989, 1990, and 1991.

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F. J. Lawrence


The genus Rubus has had considerable study, and reviews of the breeding work have been through (12, 68, 69, 76, 84). Although much progress has been made, all authors agree more is possible. This paper covers some of the successes, problems, and techniques used in the crossing of various species of Rubus. The basic chromosome number in Rubus is x = 7, and Rubus species range from 2x to 12x. Rubus species are found worldwide, from the tropics to above the Arctic Circle, offering a vast resource of germplasm for breeding purposes.

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Alisha L. Ruple, John R. Clark, and M. Elena Garcia

been reported for many species of Rubus ( Daubeny, 1969 , 1971 ; Hellman and Clark, 1984 ; Keep, 1968 ; Nybom 1985 , 1986 ; Redalen, 1976 ). Selection A-593, a genotype in the lineage of ‘Prime-Jim’® and ‘Prime-Jan’®, showed reduced fruit set in