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family of peach with that of other species of Rosaceae. These studies allowed us to examine the reliability of applying genetic information from peach to other woody rosaceous plants. Materials and Methods Plant materials and nucleic acid preparation

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greater because this figure accounted only for sales of Cotoneasters classified as “broadleaf evergreens” and many species are deciduous or semievergreen depending on climate and environmental factors. Cotoneaster is a member of Rosaceae, subfamily

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Many tree crops belonging to the Rosaceae family translocate and metabolize sorbitol. We have determined that some species of bacteria belonging to the genus Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Erwinia pathogenic to the Rosaceae demonstrate the ability to metabolize sorbitol while those that were isolated from other hosts could not utilize sorbitol. Employing cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) we have been able to demonstrate the presence of isoenzymes of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) that correlate with the ability to metabolize sorbitol in these organisms. In order to study the properties of SDH in these organisms we carried out a detailed enzymatic analysis of the enzyme from A. tumefaciens. We found that the enzyme displayed activity when mannitol or xylitol were used as substrates, in addition to sorbitol. Michaelis constants (Km) were 32.8 mM, 0.19 mM, and 38.2 mM for sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol respectively. To further distinguish the reactions with the different substrates the enzymatic extracts were further characterized on CAE using different substrates to visualize patterns of isoenzymes for a particular sugar alcohol. These analyses revealed the presence of unique isoenzymes for SDH. In addition we observed the presence of mannitol dehydrogenase (MDH) representing in most species a non-specific polyol dehydrogenase.

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Trademark Office, 2013 ). This research is a portion of a larger U.S. Department of Agriculture-funded project called “RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae.” The overall goal of RosBREED is to facilitate the use of DNA marker

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apple orchards (B. Duffy, personal communication). Erwinia amylovora is native to the United States and has a host range limited within members of Rosaceae, most commonly affecting members of the apple subfamily (Maloideae) ( van der Zwet and Beer, 1999

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Intergeneric hybridization in the Rosaceae, subtribe Malinae ( Sun et al., 2018 ), is an important reproductive mechanism that has facilitated plant speciation and domestication of novel plants ( Postman, 2011 ); however, these wide hybridization

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sequences, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) that can be employed within traditional plant breeding programs. Phylogenetic analyses divide the Rosaceae into three subfamilies, Dryadoideae, Rosoideae, and Spiraeoideae ( Potter et al., 2006 ). Commercially

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nonmodel plants such as rice (16 MAPK) ( Liu and Xue, 2007 ), apple (26 MAPK), and mulberry [ Morus notabilis (10 MAPK)] ( Wei et al., 2014 ; Zhang et al., 2013 ). In comparison with that in other species, the MAPK gene family in Rosaceae has not been

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Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott, commonly known as black chokeberry, are multistemmed deciduous shrubs belonging to the Rosaceae family, subtribe Malinae ( Sun et al. 2018 ). Interest in Aronia has increased because their fruits contain

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Native to eastern regions in North America, the genus Aronia is a group of deciduous shrubs in the Rosaceae family, subtribe Pyrinae. The Pyrinae subtribe has a base chromosome count of n = 17 ( Postman, 2011 ), and Aronia species are commonly

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