understood, and studies on regulatory mechanisms remain quite limited. Ricinus communis is an important oil crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Castor oil is renowned for its medicinal properties and industrial applications
Castor ( Ricinus communis L.), a semitropical perennial plant, is a valuable oilseed crop. It is the only commercial source of ricinoleic acid that is used for numerous industrial products (e.g., lubricants, paints, coatings, and plastics
Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats. (lesquerella, Brassicaceae), native to the southwestern United States, is a potentially useful industrial oilseed crop. The seed oil contains hydroxy fatty acids, similar to castor (Ricinus communis L.) seed oil. The unique properties of the oil, along with coproducts, allow additional applications that would not compete with castor oil. Plants with vestigial anthers (male-sterile) were discovered in a greenhouse-grown, nonselected population in 1993. The inheritance of the trait was investigated through four crop seasons. Crosses were made among male-sterile and male-fertile plants from an open pollinated population, thus, they were heterozygous for many traits. Statistical analysis indicated that male sterility is expressed as a result of two nonlinked nuclear genes with epistatic relations and different cytoplasms, which cause partial or total fertility restoration. These ratios fit a 13:3 epistatic ratio, indicating that male sterility is controlled by homozygous recessive alleles at one locus in combination with at least one dominant allele at the second locus, i.e., ms1ms1 Ms2_. Some cross results were skewed in favor of fertile phenotypes presumably due to cytoplasmic effects causing partial fertility restoration. Male-sterile lines could be used for hybrid development and this information will be helpful in implementing a strategy for hybrid development. Hybrid plants and higher yields will enhance the potential for commercialization of this new alternative crop.
Nine plant growth retardants were tested for their ability to inhibit neutral terpene biosynthesis by enzymes in cell-free extracts from rat liver, iris (Iris hollandica Hoog. cv. ‘Wedgwood’) sprouts, and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cv. ‘Baker Hybrid 66’) seeds.
Succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH), α-cyclopropyl-α (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine-methanol (A-Rest), n,n-dimethylmorpholinium chloride (BAS 0660-W), and 2-chloroethyl trimethyl-ammonium chloride (Cycocel) showed little or no inhibitory effects regardless of concentration or the test system used. Using rat liver enzymes, 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-l-piperidine-carboxy-late methyl chloride (AMO-1618) at 0.01 mM, inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis after the farnesyl-pyrophosphate step but had no inhibitory effect in the bean and iris cell-free systems. CHE-9064 (structure not released), Phosfon-D (2,4-dichlorobenzyl tributylphosphonium chloride) and 3-trifluoromethyl sulfonamido-p-acetotoluidide (Sustar) also inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver enzymes at concentrations as low as 0.01 mM while 5-chloro-2-thenyl-tri-n-butyl chloride (CHE-8728) lost its effectiveness at concentrations below 0.1 mM. In the iris system, CHE-8728, Phosfon-D and Sustar inhibited cholesterol and farnesol production at 0.1 mM but were ineffective at lower concentrations. With the castor bean system, Sustar was the only retardant to inhibit terpene biosynthesis. Results indicate that CHE-8728, CHE-9064, Phosfon-D, and Sustar inhibit the terpene biosynthetic pathway prior to the formation of the farnesyl-pyrophosphate (rat liver and iris system) or geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (castor bean system).
characterization of Lesquerella fendleri gums from seed, presscake, and defatted meal J. Agr. Food Chem. 42 1678 1685 Ahn, Y.J. Chen, G.Q. 2007 Temporal and spatial expression of 2S albumin in castor ( Ricinus communis L
al., 2017 ). It was also possible to understand the internal structures generating full and well-developed seeds with translucent images of castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) seeds to improve the seed lot quality and germination ( Carvalho et al
. Acquisition of desiccation-tolerance and germinability during development of Ricinus communis L . seeds J. Expt. Bot. 36 1906 1915 Kim, E.K. Hahn, E.J. Murthy, H.N. Paek, K.Y. 2003 High frequency of
( Ricinus communis L.) J. Oilseeds Res. 18 228 230 R Development Core Team 2010 R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. 31 Jan. 2011. < http://www.R-project.org > Royal Horticultural
, in the phloem sap of pumpkin, cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.), white lupin ( Lupinus albus L.), castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.), and yucca ( Yucca filamentosa L.). Because the sequences of these small RNAs correspond to several putative target
( Ricinus communis L.) soaked for 48 h in 5, 25, or 50 m m glycerol or a mixture of 10:5, 25:10, and 50:15 m m glycerol:aspartic acid, respectively, resulted in seedlings exhibiting higher fresh and dry weights than seedlings obtained from water