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Suzette P. Galinato, R. Karina Gallardo, David M. Granatstein, and Mike Willett

Sansford, C.E. Mastro, V. Reynolds, J.R. 2016 Pest risk analysis (PRA) for apple maggot ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) moving on municipal green waste into the pest-free area (PFA) of the state of Washington, USA. 26 Apr. 2018. < http

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K.C. Shellie, L.G. Neven, and S.R. Drake

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium `Bing') exposed to 113 or 117 °F (45 or 47 °C) in an atmosphere of 1% oxygen with 15% carbon dioxide (balance nitrogen) were heated to a maximum center temperature of 112 or 115 °F (44 or 46 °C) in 41 or 27 min, respectively. Heated cherries had similar incidence of pitting and decay, and similar preference ratings after 14 days of storage at 34 °F (1 °C) as nonheated or methyl bromide fumigated fruit. Heated cherries and methyl bromide fumigated cherries were less firm after 14 days of cold storage than nonheated, control fruit. The stems of methyl bromide fumigated cherries were less green than heated or nonheated cherries. Cherries exposed to 113 °F had lower titratable acidity than nonheated cherries, fumigated cherries, or cherries exposed to 117 °F. Cherry quality after 14 days of cold storage was not affected by hydrocooling before heating (5 min in water at 34 °F) or by method of cooling after heating (hydrocooling, forced air cooling, or static air cooling). Cherries stored for 14 days at 34 °F in 6% oxygen with 17% carbon dioxide (balance nitrogen) had similar market quality as cherries stored in air at 34 °F. Results suggest that `Bing' sweet cherry can tolerate heating in an atmosphere of low oxygen containing elevated carbon dioxide at doses that may provide quarantine security against codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata).

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William H. Olson and Richard P. Buchner

English walnut (Juglans regia) producers in California compete with many insect and disease pests to produce an acceptable crop. Traditional control strategies work reasonably well for most pests. However, environmental concerns, loss of certain pesticides and new or impending regulations threaten the use of many traditional techniques for control of many of the pests. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa), and walnut aphid (Chromaphis juglandicola) are the major insects that affect California walnut production. Control strategies that use integrated pest management programs, beneficial insects, mating disruption, insect growth regulators, improved monitoring techniques and precise treatment timing based on the insect's life cycle are leading edge techniques currently available for insect control in walnuts. Major diseases include walnut blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis), crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and crown and root rot (Phytophthora spp). Both copper resistant and copper sensitive strains of the walnut blight bacterium are best controlled with combinations of copper bactericides and maneb instead of copper materials alone. A new computer model, Xanthocast, used to forecast the need for walnut blight treatment is under evaluation. Crown gall is managed using a preplant biological control agent and a heat treatment to eradicate existing galls. Phytophthora crown and root rot is dealt with primarily by site selection, irrigation management and rootstock selection.

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Krista C. Shellie, Lisa Neven, and Steve Drake

Phytosanitary restrictions for insect pests can interfere with the marketing of fresh sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.). The objective of this research was to compare the quality of controlled atmosphere temperature treated (CAT) sweet cherries to methyl bromide fumigated cherries and non-heated, non-fumigated control fruit. Two CAT doses were evaluated: a 25-min exposure to 47 °C (117 °F) that heated the cherry center to 46 °C (115 °F), and a 40-min exposure to 45 °C (113 °F) that heated the cherries to a center temperature of 44 °C (111 °F). These heat doses approximated a heat dose that provides quarantine security against codling moth (Cydia pomonella Lw.) and western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata Lw.). An atmosphere of 1 kPa oxygen and 15 kPa carbon dioxide was established inside the treatment chamber for 21 min prior to heating. The influence on fruit quality of hydrocooling prior to the CAT treatment, cooling after treatment, and 2 weeks of cold storage after treatment in air or controlled atmosphere was evaluated. Each CAT dose was replicated four times using freshly harvested, `Bing' sweet cherries acquired from similar grower lots. Quality attributes evaluated included: stem and fruit color, firmness, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, decay, and sensory evaluations. Hydrocooling prior to treatment, cooling method after heating and storage atmosphere had no significant influence on cherry quality after cold storage. The stem color of fumigated cherries was less green after storage than CAT treated cherries or untreated, control cherries. Cherries heated for 25 min were rated after cold storage by untrained panelists as similar to non-heated, non-fumigated control fruit. Heated cherries and methyl bromide fumigated cherries were less firm after cold storage than control fruit.

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Lisa G. Neven

quarantine concern in sweet cherries grown in the Pacific Northwest are codling moth (CM) ( Cydia pomonella ) and Western cherry fruit fly (WCFF) ( Rhagoletis indifferens ). Codling moth is a lesser concern on sweet cherries, because sweet cherries are known

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Michael J. Willett, Lisa Neven, and Charles E. Miller

arthropod pests, such as the temperate zone fruit flies ( Rhagoletis spp.), when exporting organizations are faced with restrictions in markets with widely different climates and environmental conditions than those that occur in the production areas of the

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J.D. Hansen, M.A. Watkins, M.L. Heidt, and P.A. Anderson

. Cold storage is already used against the apple maggot [ Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae)] ( Hallman, 2004 ) and the oriental fruit moth [ Cydia molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] ( Hansen, 2002 ) for apples exported to Mexico. A better

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Morgan L. Cromwell, Lorraine P. Berkett, Heather M. Darby, and Takamaru Ashikaga

oblique banded leafroller [ Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris)] and on 2 Aug. 2007 for codling moth and apple maggot fly [ Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)] at 0.1 L·ha −1 . In addition, kaolin clay (Surround WP; Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc., Phoenix, AZ) was

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Gayle M. Volk, Adam D. Henk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, and C. Thomas Chao

( Dasineura mali ), soilborne apple replant pathogens, and apple maggot ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) ( Fazio et al., 2009 ; Forsline and Aldwinckle, 2004 ; Forsline et al., 2003 ; Luby et al., 2001 , 2002 ). Characterized fruit traits include aroma, flavor

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

(Busck)], and apple maggot [ Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)]. Multiple tactics in these regions have been reported: kaolin clay in managing several insect pests ( Friedrich et al., 2003 ; Garcia et al., 2004 ), scab-resistant cultivars ( Delate et al