A hydroponic method was developed and tested for screening red raspberry genotypes for resistance to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the most common causal agent of Phytophthora root rot in raspberry. Plants of `Titan' and `Encore' exhibited typical disease symptoms, with the latter developing significantly smaller stem lesions and fewer petiole lesions. The resistant cultivar, `Latham', regenerated healthy root tissue from the crown and older-order roots after initial infection and necrosis of young roots and exhibited no other symptoms beyond minor leaf chlorosis. This component of the resistance reaction has not been documented previously. A segregating F1 population from the cross of `Latham' × `Titan' had a survival rate of 56% with 42% classified as resistant, exhibited minimal symptoms, and produced varying amounts of healthy root tissue. This screening method allows multiple observations of all plant tissues, including roots, under repeatable and definable growth chamber conditions. It should be useful for classifying the phenotype of individuals in segregating red raspberry populations to investigate the inheritance of Phytophthora root rot resistance using molecular markers.
J.A. Pattison, W.F. Wilcox, and C.A. Weber
Wendy K. Hoashi-Erhardt, Patrick P. Moore, Gwenyth E. Windom, and Peter R. Bristow
Root rot caused by the persistent soilborne oomycete Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi is a serious disease of red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest and worldwide. It can decrease the vigor and yield of raspberry plantings and require
Hugh A. Daubeny
The indigenous North American red raspberry, Rubis strigosus has been neglected in breeding programs. Only four cultivars, `Cuthbert', `Latham', `Herbert' and `Ranere' provide most of the germplasm contained in present-day cultivars; no more than six individual wild genotypes of the species are represented by the four cultivars. In recent years, the B.C. breeding program has screened seedling populations of hitherto unexploited genotypes of the species from various locations in North America. Useful traits identified in selections from the populations include levels of resistance to 1) the North American aphid vector, Amphorophora agathonica, of the raspberry mosaic virus complex, 2) to several cane diseases and 3) to root rot caused by Phytophthora fragariae var rubi, as well as desirable fruit traits, such as bright, non-darkening red color and easy release. Selections with cultivar potential have now been identified in the second and third backcross generations from the species.
K.E. Maloney, W.F. Wilcox, and J.C. Sanford
`Titan' red raspberry (Rubis idaeus L.), highly susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora fragariae Hickman var. rubi Wilcox & Duncan (syns. P. erythroseptica Pethyb., “highly pathogenic” P. megasperma Drechs.), was planted in June 1990 in a silt loam naturally infested with the pathogen. Raked beds (0.36 m high) dramatically reduced disease incidence and severity relative to flatbed treatments. In contrast, metalaxyl at 372 mg·m-1 of row provided little benefit when applied to flat beds and provided consistently moderate but statistically insignificant effects when applied to raised beds. Relative to the flat bed system, primocane vigor was increased in 1992 by 16%, 190%, and 224% in the flat bed plus metalaxyl, raised bed, and raised bed plus metalaxyl treatments, respectively; total yields were increased by 7%, 231%, and 272% with these same respective treatment. The results indicate that raised-bed planting systems can provide substantial control of phytophthora root rot of red raspberries even when highly susceptible varieties are grown on otherwise marginal sites. Metalaxyl appears more effective as a supplement rather than substitute for raised beds under such conditions. Chemical name used: N- (2,6-dimethylphenyl) -N- (methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester (metalaxyl).
Kevin Maloney, Marvin Pritts, Wayne Wilcox, and Mary Jo Kelly
Various soil amendments and cultural practices were examined in both a phytophthora-infested (Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi) (+PFR) and uninfested field (–PFR) planted to `Heritage' red raspberries. Although plants in the +PFR field did not exhibit typical disease symptoms due to unseasonably dry weather, their growth was less than those in the –PFR field. After 2 years, plants in the +PFR site had the highest yields in plots treated with phosphorous acid or amended with gypsum, whereas compost-amended plots had the lowest yields in both +PFR and –PFR sites. A second field study confirmed the positive effect of gypsum on growth and yield of raspberries in an infested site. In a third study, `Titan' raspberries grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing unamended soil from the infested site, then flooded, exhibited severe disease symptoms; however, pasteurization of the soil, treatment with phosphorous acid and metalaxyl fungicide, or gypsum amendment mostly prevented symptoms from developing. These three studies suggest that a preplant soil amendment containing certain readily available forms of calcium, such as found in gypsum, can help suppress phytophthora root rot and increase survival, growth and yield of raspberries in sites where the pathogen is present.
Michael D. Meyer and Mary K. Hausbeck
management practices, including growing resistant cultivars, have been used to successfully manage other diseases caused by Phytophthora species including root rot of red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) caused by P. fragariae var. rubi ( Wilcox et al
Chaim Kempler, Hugh A. Daubeny, Brian Harding, Tom Baumann, Chad E. Finn, Patrick P. Moore, Mark Sweeney, and Tom Walters
’ and ‘Glen Prosen’ ( Daubeny and Anderson, 1991 ). BC 80-28-50 demonstrated excellent fruit qualities but was ultimately discarded because of its extreme susceptibility to root rot incited by Phytophthora fragariae Hickman var. rubi Wilcox & Duncan
Patrick P. Moore, Wendy Hoashi-Erhardt, Chad E. Finn, Robert R. Martin, and Michael Dossett
: Collaborative study J. AOAC Intl. 88 1269 1278 Man in ‘t Veld, W.A.L. 2007 Gene flow analysis demonstrates that Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi constitutes a distinct species, Phytophthora rubi comb nov. Mycologia 99 222 226 McGuire, R.G. 1992 Reporting
Hävard Eikemo, May B. Brurberg, and Jahn Davik
var. fragaria in strawberry. For resistance to Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora fragaria var. rubi in the closely related diploid red raspberry ( Rubus ideaus ), a two-gene model with dominance has been suggested ( Pattison et al
Michael Dossett, Chaim Kempler, and Hugh Daubeny
. 926 59 64 Lévesque, C.A. Daubeny, H.A. 1999 Variation in reaction to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi in raspberry genotypes Acta Hort. 505 231 235 Lewis, D. 1939 Genetical studies in cultivated raspberries J. Genet. 38 367 379 Pattison, J