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D.S. Achor, H. Browning, and L.G. Albrigo

Young expanding leaves of `Ambersweet' [Citrus reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata) × C. sinensis (L) Osb.] with feeding injury by third larval stage of citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella) were examined by light and electron microscopy for extent of injury and tissue recovery over time. Results confirmed that injury is confined to the epidermal layer, leaving a thin covering over the mine tunnel that consisted of the cuticle and outer cell wall. Wound recovery consisted of two possible responses: the production of callus tissue or the formation of wound periderm. The production of callus tissue developed within 3 days of injury when the uninjured palisade or spongy parenchyma below the injured epidermis produced callus tissue through periclinal or diagonal cell divisions. After 1 month, the entire epidermis was replaced by callus tissue. In the absence of secondary microbial invasion, this callus tissue developed a thick cuticle, followed by development of a covering of platelet wax after 4 months. Alternatively, wound periderm formed if the outer cuticular covering was torn before the cuticle had developed sufficiently to prevent the exposed cells from being desiccated or invaded by fungi, bacteria, or other insects. The wound periderm consisted of a lignified layer of collapsed callus cells, a suberized phellem layer, and a multilayered phelloderm-phellogen. Since there were always cellular collapse or fungi and bacteria associated with wound periderm formation, it was determined to be a secondary effect, not a direct effect of leafminer feeding.

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Jawwad A. Qureshi, Barry C. Kostyk, and Philip A. Stansly

The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) are two important pests of citrus. Diaphorina citri vectors putative pathogens of HLB

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Charles A. Powell, Michael S. Burton, Robert Pelosi, Mark A. Ritenour, and Robert C. Bullock

The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was first described in Calcutta, India, in 1856 ( Stainton, 1856 ). It has been a widely distributed pest in citrus-growing regions of Asia for many years

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Matthew L. Richardson, Catherine J. Westbrook, David G. Hall, Ed Stover, Yong Ping Duan, and Richard F. Lee

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella , is native to Southeast Asia but has become a key pest in most citrus-growing regions worldwide ( Heppner, 1993 ). The citrus leafminer was first discovered in major citrus-producing states in the

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Juan A. Villanueva-Jiménez and Marjorie A. Hoy

Florida citrus nursery growers were surveyed to learn about their citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) (CLM) management practices as a preliminary step in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program. All responses were kept anonymous. Survey responses from growers producing ≈4.2 million trees annually were obtained, which represents most of the estimated 5.2 million trees required to annually replant Florida groves. Large nurseries (20%) each produced ≥100,000 trees per year and jointly provided 88% of the trees produced annually. Small nurseries (80%) each produced <100,000 trees per year. The citrus leafminer was ranked the most important pest in nurseries during 1995. Pesticides used for CLM control included avermectin, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, diflubenzuron, and sulfur, in order of importance. Oil and soap also were used. Growers were concerned about the possibility that the CLM will develop resistance to pesticides. Producers potentially were willing to monitor CLM populations, switch pesticide types to improve survival of parasitoids of the CLM, and leave untreated trees inside the nursery to serve as refuges for CLM parasitoids. In order of importance, pest management advice was provided by private chemical companies, the Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide produced by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS), UF/IFAS personnel, grower magazines, private consultants, the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association, and other growers.

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Ed Stover, Randall Driggers, Matthew L. Richardson, David G. Hall, Yongping Duan, and Richard F. Lee

spread primarily by wind-driven rain but can also be transferred by equipment and personnel ( Gottwald et al., 2002 ). Wounds on leaves or fruit, including injury by the Asiatic citrus leafminer (CLM, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton), often greatly

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David G. Hall and L.G. Albrigo

greening) disease vectored by Asian citrus psyllid ( Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) ( Halbert and Manjunath, 2004 ; Hall, 2005 ) and citrus canker in which symptoms are exacerbated by the citrus leafminer ( Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) ( Browning et al

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Charles A. Powell, Mark A. Ritenour, and Robert C. Bullock

agents of the huanglongbing (citrus greening) disease ( Garnier and Bové, 1978 ), and the citrus leafminer ( Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton), which may predispose trees to Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr, and Garces emend. Vauterin et al., pr. citri

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Leonardo Lombardini, Astrid Volder, Monte L. Nesbitt, and Donita L. Cartmill

of entry for pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Increased inoculum production and disease spread have been observed for citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri after infestation by the asian leafminer ( Phyllocnistis

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Kenneth R. Summy and Christopher R. Little

), infested with sooty mold ( Capnodium citri spp. and other fungi), mealy bugs ( Planococcus citri ), leaf miners ( Phyllocnistis citrella ), and citrus mite ( Eutetranuchus citri ) (b); ( II ) sour orange saplings: uninfested control (c) and sooty mold