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( Kwack et al., 1998 ; Li et al., 2007 ). Kwack et al. (1998) and Li et al. (2007) used a commercial scanner and digital image analysis software (Photoshop; Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) to quantify the variegation, and they reported this method to be

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Presenting slides as part of any horticulture course can be time-consuming and often does not allow students independent viewing. A CD-ROM format can store enough digitized images and text to allow students to systematically view images at their own pace and enhance the classroom instructors ability to communicate desired information rapidly. A Macintosh-formatted model using greenhouse images created from scanned slides will be demonstrated and methods of implementation will be discussed.

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acquisition and using Adobe Photoshop v.3.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, Calif. ) for quantifying variegation. Materials and methods Plant materials. ‘Florida Beauty’ dracaena (a plant with cell lineage variegation pattern); ‘Mary Ann’ aglaonema, ‘Yellow Petra

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This publication was produced with the goal of printing the booklet on demand. The photographs were from multiple sources: scanned film, digital photographs (camera), and digital photographs (flatbed scanner). Fifty-six plants were included. Each plant was allocated four half-letter-size pages (one double-sided letter). These four pages include text descriptions of the plants and about nine images to give the user information on habit, seed, fruit, inflorescence, flower, stem characteristics, leaf pattern, pest damage, and other unique characteristics. Magnified images were used as necessary. The original digital images were in either TIFF or RAW format. The final images were in either TIFF or PSD format. Images were edited in Adobe Photoshop and various plug-ins used to enhance the images to optimize color and information that could be obtained from the printed image.

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Today's fast paced and technology-enriched lifestyles require that many traditional educational seminars and workshops be transformed into “sound bites” of “edu-tainment” if Extension is to keep pace with clientele needs for specific and timely information that's useful and straight to the point. To remain a viable source of timely research-based information, Extension can stay ahead of this curve by utilizing today's technology to inform and educate the public on current issues or outbreaks. This presentation will highlight two such cases where technology delivery systems were utilized to maximize audience size and create an informed public in as short amount of time as possible. Public Service Announcements (PSA's) televised over New Jersey's Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), New Jersey Network (NJN), addressed water conservation and landscape issues during the recent northeastern drought. The potential viewing audience is over eight million people, including all of New Jersey and parts of Pennsylvania, Delaware, New York, and Connecticut. The second case study will highlight a fully interactive CD-ROM on the Asian Long Horned Beetle (ALB) that was created within 12 months of the pest's discovery in Jersey City, N.J. This CD-ROM, containing curricula, PowerPoint presentations and evaluative tools, is currently being used throughout the northeast and in Canada for the most recent infestation of ALB. Filming for both Rapid Response efforts was done with a Sony DSR-500 DV Cam Camcorder and a Canon XL-1 Camcorder. Digital editing was completed on an Apple G4 running OS X with Avid Express Meridian Non-Linear Editing Software version 4.5 with 3D effects, Apple Final Cut Pro 3.0, Adobe After Effects 5.5, and PhotoShop 7.0. Stills were taken with a Sony Mavica and Nikon CoolPix digital cameras.

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Soil organic matter is a critical component which is fundamental in plant growth. Several soil factors are influenced by organic matter such as slow release of nutrients, increased water holding capacity, improved soil physical characteristics and improved environment for soil microorganisms. The aim of this work is to investigate the physical effect of organic matter content in the soil on apple root growth and development. Twenty five two-year old apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh) cv. `Buckeye Gala' on M.9 NAKB 337 rootstock were planted in completely transparent acrylic boxes. Plants have been grown in a green house to avoid external rain in a complete randomized design. Trees were planted in a sandy-mix soil amended with soil high in organic matter, “muck”, at four incremental levels. Treatments compared were a control (sandy soil with 0% organic matter) and 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% soil organic matter. The amount of water applied by automatic drip irrigation was comparable for all the treatments to avoid high fluctuation of soil moisture on root dynamics. All treatments have been fertilized with the same amount of mineral fertilizer to avoid the nutrition effect on root dynamics. Digital photos of roots were taken to study their dynamics every one to two weeks during a period of five months. Roots have been highlighted with Photoshop and then analyzed with WinRhizo to measure root length, area, lifespan and dynamics. At the end of the growing period plants have been harvested and fresh and dry weight was evaluated to asses the root/shoot ratio. The effects of the treatments on root length, area, lifespan and dynamics, and root/shoot ratio will be discussed.

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-specific programs. Image analysis publications have listed these software programs: Photoshop [Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA ( Aide et al., 2007 ; Klassen et al., 2003 ; Stewart et al., 2007 )], GIMP 2.2 and Image J 1.33 freeware ( Campillo et al., 2008 ), MATLAB

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covered by roots after removal from the container. The shoot coloring percentage and root ball coverage percentage were analyzed with Photoshop CS6 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA). Photoshop quantified the colored area (flowers) and green area (leaves

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to its reliability and ability to predict ( Calkins and Swanson, 1990 ). In the present study, we use the M percentage in the CMYK color system (C: cyan; M: magenta; Y: yellow; K: black) using Adobe Photoshop (CS2) software (Adobe, San Jose, CA) to

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, and placentation ( Fig. 1 ). For greater detail, a tool was added that allows users to zoom in on a given plant section. The plates were slightly modified in Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) to remove each plant’s scientific name and family name

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