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Hannah R. Swegarden, Craig C. Sheaffer, and Thomas E. Michaels

bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) cultivars included in the 2013–14 yield trials. Seed descriptors (seed size, shape, weight, coat color, coat patter, corona color, length, width, and thickness) were evaluated from 2012 original seed stock (n = 15) and 2013

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Kyle M. VandenLangenberg, Paul C. Bethke, and James Nienhuis

and Hopp, 1961 ). In general, if sweetness is perceived in a vegetable, even mildly, it may be enough to encourage consumption ( Dinehart et al., 2006 ). Sensory panelists, who preferred dry bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and edamame [ Glycine max (L

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Kerrie McDaniel and David Lightfoot

Physiological differences between cttokinins are well documented. An explanation for these differences is that cytokinins differentially regulate genes. Gene response has been analyzed in cell culture and organized tissue of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Great Northern. Two novel cDNAs, L-221 and L-22, have been identified that are cytokinin responsive. In leaf tissue L-221 was repressed by zeatin, benzyladenine and thidiazuron at 50 μM. In suspension cell culture mRNA abundance of L-221 remained constant regardless of cytokinin treatment. By contrast, the abundance of L-22 mRNA was increased differentially by treatment with each of the 3 cytokinins in leaf tissue. Suspension cells analyzed for expression of L-22 after cytokinin treatment also showed differential gene expression. S-1 Nuclease Protection Assays revealed that gene expression is a transient phenomenon dependent upon the time of cytokinin application and cytokinin concentration. Callus bioassays showed that dihydrozeatin and O-glucosylzeatin gave greater responses than the co-application of zeatin and dihydrozeatin or zeatin and O-glucosylzeatin. The conjugate and the reduction derivative also gave greater responses than zeatin alone. Effects of dihydrozeatin and O-glucosylzeatin on gene expression will be reported.

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Jesse Vorwald and James Nienhuis

Nuña beans are a type of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) native to the Andean region of South America that possess the unusual property of popping when exposed to heat ( National Research Council, 1989 ). Popped nuñas are a snack food similar

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Wesley Gartner, Paul C. Bethke, Theodore J. Kisha, and James Nienhuis

al., 2012 ). Days after flowering is an additional measure of maturity that has been used for comparisons among genotypes, although variation in rates of maturity could result in biased comparisons. Fruits of Phaseolus vulgaris contain a single

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MiAe Cho, Brandon M. Hurr, Jiwon Jeong, Chaill Lim, and Donald J. Huber

Green or common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are harvested at a physiologically immature stage of development. Growth is rapid at the time of harvest and beans exhibit comparatively high respiration rates, even when held at low temperatures

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Ana Maria Sabja, David W.S. Mok, and Machteld C. Mok

Interspecific hybrid embryos resulting from crosses between Phaseolus species generally fail to reach maturity, and embryo rescue techniques are required to recover plants. To determine if ovary (pod) culture could permit interspecific hybrid embryo development, pods of P. vulgaris L. × P. acutifolius A. Gray and P. vulgaris L. (control) were cultured upright, supported by glasswool, in modified Murashige-Skoog liquid medium. The weight of seeds and length of embryos in P. vulgaris pods increased significantly during culture. However, usually only one or occasionally two seeds located at the middle positions of the pods developed to maturity. The same pod culture procedure promoted precocious germination of early cotyledonary-stage P. vulgaris × P. acutifolius embryos without further maturation of the embryos. These findings confirm that developmental arrest of the interspecific hybrid embryos in vivo is due to intrinsic deficiencies.

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Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, and Emily E. Hoover

Decreases in fertility are most common among interspecific, wide crosses of Phaseolus; intraspecific hybrids are less likely to exhibit sterility. Intraspecific CBC hybrid pedigrees were created to test for comparative fertility losses. Eight P. vulgaris cultivars from different centers of origin, polymorphic for seed proteins (15, 20, 50 kDa), were used to create 16 CBC populations: dry (`Cuarenteño', `Great Northern Harris', `Sulfur', `Swedish Brown') and snap beans (`Purple Pod Pole', `Romano Bush', `Royal Burgundy Bush', `White Half Runner'). Despite repeated attempts, two crosses failed to produce primary hybrids. Primary hybrids had decreased percent stainable pollen from the parents. Female sterility was more severe, necessitating the screening of the F1–F3 before producing the next CBC. Yield was significantly lower than midparent values for all F3 CBC pedigrees. In several cases, phaseolin was no longer the major seed protein. Other hybrid breakdown symptoms were similar to those found with wide crosses, indicative of incongruity between centers of origin.

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Jesse Vorwald and James Nienhuis

Nuña beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a type of common bean that possess the unusual property of popping when exposed to heat ( National Research Council, 1989 ). Popping of nuñas results from the expansion of the cotyledons and produces a nut

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Diana Carolina Núñez-López, Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

desarrollo de métodos de muestreo para Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en habichuela y frijol ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Rev. Colomb. Entomol. 31 161 169 Cardona, C. Rodríguez, G. Adela, P. Pedro, C. 1993 Umbral de acción para el