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The United States is a historically important and significant global producer of blueberries ( Vaccinium sp.) ( International Blueberry Organization 2022 ). Washington, USA, and the broader Pacific Northwest region lead the United States in

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190 WORKSHOP 22 (Abstr. 1055-1058) Production and Utilization of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Pacific Northwest and Caribbean

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fresher, safer, healthier, and supportive of community ( Carroll et al., 2013 ; Feldmann and Hamm, 2015 ; Zepeda and Leviten-Reid, 2004 ). Strawberry growers in the western parts of Pacific Northwest North America (comprising Oregon, Washington, and

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H/LA journal paper no. 96-07. This research was supported in part by the Pacific Northwest Small Fruits Research Center. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper

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190 WORKSHOP 22 (Abstr. 1055-1058) Production and Utilization of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Pacific Northwest and Caribbean

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The Pacific Northwest boasts a remarkable diversity of wild currants and gooseberries (Ribes). Of nearly 150 species worldwide, 34 occur in the region. All but two infrageneric taxa are represented, including close relatives of the black currants, red currants, and cultivated gooseberries. High ecological diversity parallels this taxonomic diversity: a Ribes species occurs in nearly every terrestrial habitat, from sea level to above treeline, and from swamp to desert. This diversity is a valuable source of agronomically important genes for the plant breeder. In addition, wild Ribes represent a relatively unexplored source of ornamental shrubs. Habit and habitat of a number of species of interest are described and illustrated. An annotated list of species, subspecies, and varieties native to the Pacific Northwest is presented with discussion of taxonomic proximity to Cultivated varieties, range, natural habitat, and ornamental potential.

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Sixteen western black raspberry (Rubus leucodermis Douglas ex Torrey & A. Gray) populations, collected from through out the Pacific Northwest, and `Munger', the most widely grown black raspberry (R. occidentalis L.) cultivar, were established in 1994 in a replicated trial in Corvallis, Ore. In 1996 and 1997 the seedlings were evaluated for date of budbreak, flowering date, ripening date, fruit size, and disease tolerance. Fruit within a replication were pooled for evaluation of pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and anthocyanin content. The plants were vigorous and had produced solid hedges by the time evaluation commenced. The populations were significantly different within each year for all traits except for anthocyanin content in 1996. Rubusleucodermis populations were identified that broke bud and ripened fruit earlier or later than `Munger'; however, all flowered with or sooner than `Munger'. Despite the fact that R. occidentalis is native to eastern North America and R. leucodermis to the West, `Munger' was much less affected by foliar and cane diseases than the R. leucodermis populations. Several populations were as vigorous as `Munger'. `Munger' had fruit that were 30% larger than the mean for any R. leucodermis population. Generally, R. leucodermis had higher pH and lower titratable acidity than `Munger', but many populations had similar soluble solids; lower acidity may partly explain the blandness of R. leucodermis fruit compared with `Munger'. Despite the lighter appearance of R. leucodermis, the anthocyanin levels of some populations were higher than `Munger'. Rubusleucodermis may be a source of earlier fruiting, later budbreak, and vigor when used in breeding but careful selection for fruit size (for the fresh market), acidity (for the processing market), and disease resistance must be done. Rubus leucodermis may also be an excellent source of raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) resistance in black and red raspberry breeding programs.

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for processing, and it is an important crop to the Pacific Northwest (PNW; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2019 ). Red raspberry is also a unique perennial fruit crop as it has an expansive perennial root system and biennial canes that fruit on 1-year

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Abstract

Growth and fruiting of 8 red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars, 4 of Pacific Northwest origin and 4 of British origin, were studied over a 4-year period at 2 sites, Abbotsford, British Columbia, and Invergowrie, Scotland. The sites are in the world’s 2 main production regions for the crop, and the cultivars include those important in the respective regions. The cultivars in the same origin group generally outyielded those of the other group at their place of origin. The cultivars yielding well at Invergowrie were those that had thick canes and produced fruit with high drupelet set. Those that yielded well at Abbotsford produced, in comparison, more fruiting laterals per cane. These characteristics would be useful in selecting for high yield in seedling populations grown at the respective sites.

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The Pacific Northwest (PNW) region produces most of the North American crop of processed red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) annually, with Washington accounting for 58% of the region’s 45,000 t of fruit produced in 2015 ( Raspberry Industry

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