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weight ( Kamath and Proctor, 1998 ), rice hulls are an abundant and readily available material throughout much of the world. Parboiled rice hulls (PBH) are a type of fresh rice hull obtained as a result of a steaming process and are therefore sterile and

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unacceptably high shipping costs for most horticultural uses. Parboiled fresh rice hulls (PBH) are a milling coproduct of the rice industry and comprise ≈20% of the rice grain at harvest ( Kamath and Proctor, 1998 ). PBH are obtained as a result of a steaming

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have been used to provide AFP in substrates, with two of the most common being perlite ( Bunt, 1988 ) and PBH ( Evans and Gachukia, 2007 ). Perlite is an inorganic expanded aluminosilicate of volcanic origin ( Nelson, 2003 ) produced by mining the ore

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shipping costs. Parboiled fresh rice hulls (PBH) are a milling coproduct of the rice industry and comprise ≈20% of the rice grain at harvest. Parboiled fresh rice hulls are obtained as a result of a steaming process and are therefore free of viable weed

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after the milling process. This results in a lightweight and consistent product that is free of viable weed and/or rice seed ( Evans and Gachukia, 2004 ). Another advantage in using PBH as a horticultural substrate amendment is the low decomposition rate

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.25 cm) (Altland et al., 2016). A common concern about organic mulches is that they impose nitrogen (N) deficiency on crops they surround. After initial reports on the utility of PBH for weed control in container crops ( Altland and Krause, 2014 ), a

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, 1988 ; Gardiner et al., 1990 ; Kennedy, 1974 ). Parboiled rice hulls (PBH) are a type of fresh rice hull derived specifically from parboiled rice that are obtained during a steaming process ( Evans and Gachukia, 2008 ). It has been demonstrated that

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properties of ground parboiled fresh rice hull products. Whole parboiled fresh rice hulls (PBH) were obtained from Riceland Foods, Inc. (Stuttgart, AR). Sphagnum peat was obtained from Sun Gro Horticulture (Bellevue, WA). Two ground rice hull products (RH1

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sphagnum peat (peat) with 20% and 30% (v/v) super coarse perlite or PBH. The substrates were placed into 53 cm × 26 cm × 5-cm plastic flats and allowed to air-dry at 32 °C until substrates no longer lost weight for a 24-h period. Water was then added to the

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non-PBH. No fresh ground rice hull products passed through 1-, 2-, 4-, or 6-mm-diameter screens had the same physical properties as peat, but some of the products had physical properties within recommended ranges. Buck and Evans (2010) reported that

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